The Diary and the Patronage of Count Adolph of Bentheim-Tecklenburg und Steinfurt
Count Adolph of Bentheim-Tecklenburg und Steinfurt who will henceforth be referred to as "Bentheim" is the author of a travel diary kept between 1597 and 1600[1] and was a patron in Rheda from 1606 to the beginning of the Thirty Years War. His building, an additional wing at the castle of Rheda that was constructed under his auspices, and his travel diary which records his observations about the various Renaissance buildings he visited in Italy, France, Flanders and England are testimonies of his understanding of architecture. Both are evidence of his conservative approach to it which remains firmly within the limits of the German, or indeed the Westfalian Mannerist tradition. Nevertheless it is interesting to consider his activities as a patron of architecture in Rheda in the light his experiences and observations on this journey.


The Biography
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His biography can be reconstructed from three main sources apart from the diary which covers only the period from 1597 to 1600. The most important one is the Vita Arnoldi[2], written by an anonymous scholar, which is the biography of his father Arnold of Bentheim-Tecklenburg and Steinfurt. In addition there are two treatises by Gerhard A. Rump[3] and Moritz Meier[4] which contain two almost identical short biographies[5]. Bentheim was born in 1577 at his father's main residence in Steinfurt, he was the second of six brothers, two of whom died during his lifetime, and two sisters. In 1587 he joined his brothers at the school in Herborn. He had to interrupt his studies for several months recovering from a nearly fatal illness before he started his higher education at the universities of  Heidelberg in 1591 and Utrecht in 1593 where he stayed until he set off on his journey, accompanied by his brother Arnold-Jobst which began at Geneva "where he mixed with Théodor de Bèze[6] and other excellent gentlemen for some time"[7]. After his return he stayed for several months at the court of Landgrave Moritz of Hesse-Kassel and did some further travelling. He married Magaretha zu Nassau-Wiesbaden und Idstein in 1606, the year of his father's death and took over the government of the three territories Tecklenburg, Rheda and Hoya from his mother in 1616[8]. From 1606 until the beginning of the Thirty Years War he supervised the construction of an additional wing at the castle in Rheda. He must have been very preoccupied with the building work in this period as there is little further information of his activity apart from the construction bills[9]. After his death in 1627 his wife remarried in 1631[10]; she stayed in Rheda for the rest of her life until 1660. In 1667 his biographer Moritz Meier described the new wing as "a handsome new building that was created by the late Count Adolph."

His education is recorded only in rough outlines by the biographers. He seems not to have had a great deal of instruction in the subjects of art and architecture, although they might have played a subordinate role in his studies. He was, as Rump mentions, taught the practice of the fine arts as soon as he was able to speak. Much greater emphasis was given to religious education and exercise in good manners. In his higher education the knowledge of foreign languages was regarded important as the much needed accomplishment as a nobleman. His conversation with famous scholars like Théodor de Bèze[11] was, according to Rump, essential to complete his studies and leaving him with an ability to talk fluently in French and Italian. In addition he seems to have also mixed with non-academics, the author of the Vita Arnoldi is keen to point out that Bentheim talked to the "highest potentates of Europe"[12] and derived educational benefit from it. "Conversiren" with foreigners was considered an essential part of the count's education by the anonymous author who mentions the term twice in the same paragraph. He says further that it was essential for Bentheim's general, cosmopolitan attitude which he used for the purposes of diplomacy during the Eighty Years War. During this war which affected his father's lands because of savaging Spanish troupes on their way to the Netherlands he received the Spanish colonel Ambrosius Spinola[13] who is described as a fierce man in the Vita Arnoldi at Erpen in order to stop the pillage of the family territories. He was also able to maintain a friendly relationship with another Spaniard, the Count of Solre[14] who was nursed in Steinfurt after escaping an ambush. Bentheim seems to have been well versed in diplomacy which he learned, in particular, on his travels in Europe. It is more uncertain, however, whether he also learned about architecture on this journey and it is interesting to examine the diary, which is the main source for our knowledge of his activities and observations in this period for signs of his particular interest in this subject.


The Diary
The diary which contains 48 folios of German, French and Latin manuscript text and which was written up in a neat sixteenth century hand after his return and corrected by another hand, probably by Bentheim himself[15]. The diary has little information about his exchanges with famous men who might have taught him architecture and he does not record any conversations. It is uncertain whether he was particularly interested in the content of these conversations if he had them. He met Justus Lipsius at Loewen on 4 October 1600[16] where he stayed for a day and Galileo Galilei on 20 December 1597 [17], but there is no indication in his diary of whether he actually talked to the famous scholars. Théodor de Bèze, who was, according to the biographers, his teacher in Geneva is not mentioned once in the text. The only academic he met at a social gathering, where he was one of several guests, is the famous anatomist Felix Platter[18] with whom he had dinner after a promotion ceremony at Basel which lasted two and a half hours on 23 June 1597[19]. He mentions visits of university colleges at Strasbourg, Loewen, Oxford (Queen's College) and Cambridge (Kings College) but he does not seem to have stayed very long; in Strasbourg he merely paid a brief visit on 8 June 1597. The brevity of his stays at the universities indicates that these visits were touristic in character and we cannot justifiably call them educational in any formal sense. Only a closer examination of the dating of his more unspecific references to the university towns of Geneva, Padua, Strasbourg, Bourges and Paris may give further evidence of the educational relevance of his journey. Bentheim maintains in his diary a fairly accurate chronological record of his overnight stays during the journey and it is only during the stays at university towns that we find lapses of up to six months[20]. It is not unlikely that he spend these periods studying at the universities of these towns; periods at foreign universities were a common practice amongst German students of the sixteenth century. The contemporary traveller Thomas Platter, who met Bentheim in London[21], records in his diary that there was a German community in Bourges living in a hostel on the central square next to the church of St. Peter. There was also a long tradition of German students at Padua university, a prominent example being Dürer's humanist friend Willibald Pirkheimer[22]. Bentheim's elder brother Evervyn Wyrich was also at this university where he died in May 1597[23]. Bentheim may have intended to join his elder brother who passed away before his arrival in Padua on 30 July. It is surprising that he does not give details about his stays at these university towns. Maybe he intended to add relevant passages at a later date[24]. On the other hand he may have regarded this information as out of character with the aims of a travel diary and hence not worthy of record. The fact that he had a wide variety of interests such as natural history[25] and mechanics[26] as well as history[27], art[28] and architecture[29] which can be deduced from descriptions in the diary is in itself a fairly certain indication that he had a formal university education. The lack of more precise information about his interest in architecture which a detailed account of his university career would have supplied is regrettable. We have to turn to his descriptions of architecture in the diary itself for a more accurate understanding of his perception of the subject.

The evidence for his appreciation of the architecture of Italy, France and England which he saw during the journey is not abundant, there are lists of buildings in the diary entries of Rome and Florence, he names various châteaux in France and mentions the English royal palaces, Theobalds, the home of Robert Cecil as well as the two colleges at Oxford and Cambridge. There is not much evidence in the diary that he was very interested in the architecture of these buildings. The brief remarks about architectural details of palatial buildings such as Hampton Court where he saw on 29 August 1600 two courts and a fountain in the centre of the second court are merely the preamble to the descriptions of the interior of the palaces where he examined decorative objects with great interest, often recording them in extensive and rather arbitrarily ordered lists. He does not seem to have found it necessary to give equal attention to the exterior decoration of the palaces he mentions. He is unlikely to have been very interested in the revival of classical architecture evident in the facades of Renaissance palaces. In Italy he mentions only once, in a very unspecific reference to the Palazzo Farnese which had been redesigned by Michelangelo after the plans of Antonio da Sagallo the Younger, the general beauty of its architecture. Usually he seems to have been content with straightforward lists where he ticked off buildings such as Nonsuch Palace, Windsor Castle, Whitehall Palace, Greenwich, the ducal palaces at Mantua and Florence and the Vatican without further description; it is only very rarely that he mentions the gardens along with the account of the interior and, in the case of Nonesuch Palace he mentions nothing but the garden.

Often Bentheim's lists include more than one building which he saw in larger towns like Rome or Florence, but also in London. Curiously he simply omits Paris in his diary although he stayed there for over six months. Many of the names of buildings which he records in the larger towns, particularly in Rome and Florence were probably derived from guide-books which he and other travellers used[30]. He may even have consulted such a guide-book to help along his memory when he wrote up the diary after his return. Such guides to Italy were very common in the sixteenth century, a good example is the Delitiae Italiae by Georg Krantz of Wertheim which retraces a cheap-budget tour[31]. There were also small printed volumes with pictures of the main sights such as Franzini's Palatia[32] which depicts the most prominent Roman palaces and churches as well as large topographical works like Sebastian Münster's Cosmographia[33] which many travellers consulted. It is thus not surprising that Bentheim's descriptions match the accounts of other contemporary travellers such as the French diarist Jean Tarde. The main sights of Florence[34], which Bentheim saw an three visits to the town on 18 September, 28 October and 5 November in 1598 are also mentioned in the 1593 and 1614 diaries[35] of the French traveller who, like Bentheim, refrains from detailed descriptions of the town. Florence, which had flourished culturally and architecturally in the quattrocento seems to have been in the sixteenth century an obligatory stop for travellers who are rarely enthusiastic about its beauty. It was the last rest on the way to Rome.

Bentheim was one of a multitude of foreigners travelling to Rome about which Montaigne complains in his 1580 dairy, saying that most people he met were from abroad and greeted him in his own language[36]. On the brief visit to Rome, from 24 to 31 September, Bentheim spent only four days looking at sights which are recorded in the same enumerative fashion as the sights of Florence. There is little detailed description, he simply names the main sights which can be identified with the help of Tarde's dairy. For both travellers St Peter's Cathedral[37] was the first attraction, but they also saw the treasures in the Vatican[38]. Tarde who describes the precious objects in greater detail mentions also the gallery with maps of the world which is the only detail Bentheim records in the Vatican apart from the treasures[39]. The Lateran palace, the Palazzo Farnese[40], the Capitole[41] and the Castello St Angelo[42] are also mentioned by both authors as well as various antiquities[43]. The account of Roman monuments contains one significant analysis of a building, the centrally planned church of St Agnese, which distinguishes it from the notorious lists of sights Bentheim draws up elsewhere. He compares the church to the Pantheon, a classical building which Tarde calls the most beautiful of antiquities[44]. The Pantheon was universally admired in the Renaissance and mentioned in various treatises including the Cosmographia. Bentheim probably knew[45] this topographical work which contains a long description and an illustration of the famous antiquity that may have inspired him. The enthusiasm of Humanists since Alberti about its structure might explain the somewhat unusual and rare description in the diary which indicates that he had some however limited understanding of architecture. He seems to have been fond of centrally organised church, a design which he also recognises in the structure of the Sala Reale of the Castel Nuovo at Naples. He describes the Sala Reale as "circular like a church, enormously high, has a window at the top that illuminates the room and two large windows onto the sea"[46]. It is curious that his awareness of the architectural structure of the Pantheon becomes apparent only with reference to buildings such as the Castel Nouvo and St. Agnese whereas the visit to the Pantheon itself did not prompt any description. It seems that the classical architecture as such was of little interest for Bentheim and it certainly provoked no enthusiasm his account of Roman sights.

Bentheim's disinterest in classical architecture is evident also in his description of the visit to the area around Pouzzoli and Baia in southern Italy. His attraction to this area where he saw several classical temples, an antique theatre and a cistern seems to have been inspired by his antiquarian taste for historical anecdote which is already apparent in the description of the Bocca di Verita, a classical sculpture of a river god in Rome which was thought to have the miraculous capacity to detect lies, helping Roman men to "test out their wives"[47]. The ruins that he mentions in Pouzzoli are associated with historical figures of classical antiquity such as oratorium and the sepulchre of Agrippa[48], the villa and the academy of Cicero, the piscina of Nero and the arch of Caesar. The two ruined temples are dedicated to the Roman deities Minerva and Apollo and the classical theatre is called the "Colisei"[49]. Sometimes this information differs from descriptions of the ruins by other travellers who visited the same sights which were well-known contemporary tourist attractions[50]. The anonymous author of the Discours Viatiques, who seems to have made a similar tour[51] and names the same sights in a slightly different order, declares the temple of Minerva to be that of Mercury. He also says Nero's pool was in fact used by Lucullus to keep his fish.

The anonymous author seems to have shared Bentheim's somewhat innocent admiration for the antiquities. In a few cases this admiration is coupled with a pseudo scientific interest in geology, Bentheim remarks for example that the Via Appia and the classical town of Patria are submerged in the Lago Averno and the Mediterranean Sea. He also notes the volcanic fumes of the "baths of Cicero". His account of antique sights is mixed up indiscriminately with topographical descriptions and contemporary anecdotes. He mentions various grotti[52], lakes[53], mountains[54] and a volcanic crater called Solfaterra which was accessible through a long corridor. He recounts the eruption of the Monte Nuovo on 29 September 1538 which grew within a day covering up the town Trepergola and the Lago Lucrino in the process[55]. He mentions another story of a dog which died of the volcanic fumes when it was put into the Grotta del cane and which came back to life after it was thrown into the Lago Agnatum[56]. The names and anecdotes which agree to a large extent with contemporary travel diaries must have been derived from a common source, probably a guide book. Bentheim may have used his guide book after his return to write up the entry under 11 September 1598, which is arranged in a long paragraph consisting mainly of a list that is supplemented by the two short anecdotes about the Grotta del cane and the Monte Nuovo. There is, however, no evidence of any archeological interest in classical architecture. The interest in Pouzzoli has to be explained by its fame as a tourist attraction. There is for example a long entry and a map in the Cosmographia describing the area. Bentheim seems to have undertaken his journey to the south of Italy mainly to see this famous sight.

The appreciation of art and the decorative arts which is in many ways similar to the interest in the sights of Florence Rome and Pouzzoli, illustrates Bentheim's approach to his travel abroad. He seems to have trodden mainly the established paths seeking out art in those places where a sixteenths century traveller in Italy might have expected it. One such place was the "guarderobbe" of a town palace. The guarderobbe was a store room for objects which were used to decorate the palace on festive occasions. Often it was open to visitors; in the Palazzo Veccio in Florence it was guarded permanently by two armed soldiers[57]. Sometimes he records also the objects in the stately apartment of a palace. Like in his record of Florentine and Roman monuments Bentheim seems to have found it sufficient to simply list the objects that he saw in the palaces. The lists he records are particularly long in the descriptions of the ducal collections in Florence, Pisa and Mantua, the treasuries of the pope in the Vatican and the collections of the English royal palaces. On his Italian journey he seems to have been interested especially in objects made of precious stones and metal as well as engraved crystal such as the sets of golden and crystal tableware, the head made of a large turquoise, the writing desk inlaid with precious stones in the Palazzo Veccio in Florence, which he visited on 18 September, 28 October and 5 November 1597[58] as well as the golden rapier with thirty inlaid gems, the golden chain and the brown velvet saddle with golden borders in the ducal palace in Mantua which he saw on 15 November. In the Vatican which Bentheim visited on 26 September he mentions, in addition to secular objects like the sword with a golden scabbard and the pair of pearl studded Spanish and Indian boxes presented to the pope by the King of Portugal, some liturgical instruments made of crystal, gold or like the two golden chalices given by Cosimo di Medici, inlaid with precious stones, as well as other sacred objects like the various crosses, the silver statues of the Apostles and the pope's mitre with the pontificals[59]. Bentheim must to have been attracted by the enormous value of the treasures that he describes. In the same spirit he records the price of the diamond worked into the royal throne in the Paradise Chamber at Hampton Court which was estimated at five hundred pounds sterling[60]. He also calculates the value of the gem in German thalers (2315 thalers) and French crowns (1666 crowns)[61]. Apart from the value of these treasures Bentheim admired the craftsmanship which went into the making of these objects. He seems to have disregarded the religious connotations of these works which might be explained by the Protestant, or in his case, Calvinist insistence on a distinction of content and form in religious works of art. This attitude made the art criticism of later times possible and culminated in the "l'art pour l'art" of the nineteeth century[62]. His appreciation of the 1509 Holy Trinity panel in Frankfurt, which was probably Dürer's Heller altarpiece[63], focuses merely on the impressive preservation of the pigment. He mentions, almost as a mockery of sacredness, the two ancient relics with the remains of flesh and blood at the end of the description of treasures in the Vatican. Although the content of a work of art seems to be of secondary importance, he is still interested in it as a record of history or classical myth such as the story from Ovid's Metamorphoses[64] depicted in the fresco of the Mantuan ducal palace which he saw on 15 October[65]. This fresco is the only work of art that Bentheim records in a specific reference on his Italian journey, an indication that he was probably not a connoisseur of Italian art. This reticence about Italian art is made all the more notable by his detailed records of the titles and the content of many portraits and battle scenes at Whitehall palace.

The description of the contents of Whitehall Palace[66], as well as of the other royal residences in England which he saw after travelling though Austria, Bohemia, parts of southern Germany and France are not essentially dissimilar from the descriptions of treasures in the guarderobbes of the Italian palaces. It is unlikely that Bentheim, who records mainly the titles of paintings in the entry for Whitehall Palace suddenly lost his interest in precious objects when he came to England especially given his excitement about the treasures inside the famous Paradise Chamber at Hampton Court. He probably had no access to the store rooms of the English palaces equivalent to the guarderobbes in Italy. Travel in England during he reign of Queen Elizabeth I was a good deal more formalised than continental sight -seeing. Thomas Platter reports that he had to obtain a written permission to be shown "not only the gardens, the larger halls, chapels and rooms [...] but also the smaller royal cabinets and whatever wonderful things may be in store inside."[67] Bentheim may not have had such a permission. In addition travellers were not free to walk about the palaces freely, they were shown around by guides. They were not allowed access to the private rooms of a palace where the Queen was holding court, a fact which might explain the absence of detailed description of the interior of Nonsuch Palace in Bentheim's diary[68]. Some German travellers such as the Baron Waldstein who came to England in 1600 and the Duke of Stettin-Pommerania also had a general guide who accompanied them on their tour around the country[69]. Everybody who came to England had to obtain official permission to travel upon arrival. Given the formality of English travel it is likely that Bentheim recorded the things that he was shown and not necessarily those that he wanted to see. More interesting, however, is the fact that he seems to have attempted to give a complete record of the objects that he was shown at Whitehall Palace[70], almost as an endorsement of the formality of the guided tour. His account of the interior closely reflects the description of the same palace by the contemporary traveller Baron Waldstein[71]. More than half of the seventy- one objects that Bentheim mentions, most of which are portraits, appear also in Waldstein's diary. They are listed in an order which roughly reflects the succession of rooms that they visited although Bentheim does not always distinguish the separate rooms. He is silent, for example, about the long gallery that Waldstein mentions although the pictures in it are listed in the diary[72]. Apart from paintings which appear in both diaries[73] there seem to have been various precious and exotic objects in the palace that both authors note such as the Indian bed made of white and multi-coloured silk, the collection of tortoise shell boxes and caskets, the mother of pearl book-rest and a whole hermitage which was constituted by a rock with cells, as well as musical instruments, a telescope, tree globes, various maps and boards with inscriptions. Bentheim copies some of the inscriptions, one from a copy of Erasmus' Dialogus Fidei which is the book's dedication of Queen Elizabeth I to her father[74], another from a musical instrument[75] and a third from a board which displayed a philosophical diagram [76] as well as from two of the paintings[77], all of which appear also in Waldstein's dairy. The relative completeness of the section on Whitehall is striking in comparison with his descriptions of Italian palaces, particularly the Vatican where he does not mention the most obvious and popular of sights, the Galleria delle Carte Geogaphiche[78], not to speak of the frescoes of Raphael or Michelangelo. Whether or not the section of Whitehall which is surprisingly similar to Waldstein's account was copied from the diary of a fellow traveller by Bentheim who might have known Waldstein [79] and possibly plagiarized his description or whether it is a faithful record of the guided tour is uncertain. Whatever the source of his account may have been, the desire for completeness conceals his insecurity about a building and indeed a country which was not as yet fully mapped out by the writers of topography and guide books.

It is possible that the the reorganisation of the diary in the period in between 2 September 1599 and 25 February 1600 which marks out the section on England from the rest of the manuscript in a purely visual sense has the same purpose as the completeness of the Whitehall paragraph: to conceal the insecurity about the objects described. Bentheim seems to have found it necessary to change the format of the diary in this section, he abandons the simple dated diary entries which were written in French in favour of Latin paragraphs with headings for each paragraph. Some of the earlier diary entries as for example the visit to Hampton Court and Nonsuch Palace on 29 August 1599 are re-edited in the new format which is reminiscent of a formal treatise intended for publication not unlike those written by his contemporaries Heinrich Schickhardt and Thomas Platter. It may have been the influence of Thomas Platter who reports a meeting with Bentheim on 19 September[80] which inspired him to the change of format. The chronology of this alteration, though, betrays his particular insecurity about his observations in England: when he is back on the continent on 25 February 1600 he returns to the former practice of simple dated entries. The credibility of his diary seems to have been important to Bentheim who seems to have found it necessary to insert quotations from secondary sources in the text. Curiously it is only in the English section of the diary that mentions the authors and sometimes the title of his sources which are usually topographical or historical works. The main source he records is the Britannica by the antiquary William Camden[81] whose name he mentions three times in the diary[82]. From it he quotes either the historical information[83] and mythological anecdote which he seems to have regarded as one single category. Another historical treatise, the De Antiquitate Cantabrigiensis Academiae[84] by John Caius is quoted alongside the Britanica in the short paragraph on Cambridge which describes the foundation myth of the university. Bentheim seems to have been particularly fond of what he regarded as the early history the town, he copied two different accounts[85] describing the foundation of the university by the Spaniard Cantaber[86] as well as the subsequent history up to the destruction of the town by the Danish invaders. The relative frequency and the length of such historical quotations as well as the reference to the authors and titles of the sources in this section of the diary reflect Bentheim's desire to produce a safe and credible report of his journey as well as to provide an authoritative account the sights he saw. He justifies his observations with the authority of the sources he quotes and the format he chose thus concealing his lack of orientation about what to observe.

It is not only in the English diary where Bentheim seems to have felt insecure about the information he was recording but also in his descriptions of sights off the beaten track. He seems to have needed the explanation of either literary or oral sources to help along his understanding of the significance of a sight. Two of his more comprehensive descriptions of architecture, both of buildings which were no general tourist attractions, are preceded by the reference to a visit to some benevolent individual. The early quattrocento monastery of St Ambrosio was shown to him by an Italian monk who afterwards gave him a meal with "cheese,bread and delicious wine"[87]. It is likely that this monk who had lived in Germany for a long time and presumably spoke good German explained to Bentheim the architecture of the building which was designed by Bramante in 1497. Bentheim accurately describes it as a construction with two adjacent cloisters and beautiful cells for the monks on the first floor which are connected by galleries that match the width of the cloisters below[88]. The fact that the monk probably talked to him in his own language may have been helpful to Bentheim who is likely to have been less fluent in Italian than his biographers claim. He seems to have been influenced more significantly by conversations in German rather than in French or Latin. Another German-speaker, his cousin Philipp of Hanau probably explained to him the architecture of the castle of Hanau (ill.1)which had been reorganised according to Renaissance plans with corridors and a large hall. Bentheim who records this information in the entry of 27 May 1597[89] describes the interior of the castle in great detail. He marks down the width and the length of the hall which measured seventeen by fifty yards, mentions that there are no pillars to support the ceiling, notes the large and high windows with round-arched tops and an additional oval window above and says that on the right there was the entrance into another large room which was the silver-cabinet as well as an entrance at the far side which lead into a corridor that connected the wings on the interior of the building. The description betrays awareness of the shift towards greater functionality and the emphasis on easier access to individual rooms in the organisation of the interior space of Renaissance architecture[90]. The length and the detail of his description indicate that he was impressed by his cousin's construction of a Renaissance court superimposed over the medieval castle which unfortunately no longer exists as the building was partly demolished by the Elector of Hesse who inherited it in 1736[91]. It is likely that the conversations with Philipp of Hanau, who was in a position similar to Bentheim as a Protestant ruler on the eve of the Thirty Years war had an important influence on his understanding of architecture. For Bentheim it must have been easier to identify with his own countrymen and relatives, a fact which may explain his sudden interest in minute architectural detail.

The main descriptions of German architecture were probably influenced not only by his conversation with Philipp of Hanau but also his future brother-in-law, Johann of Nassau. He seems to have explained to Bentheim the plan and elevation of the stately homes of the Nassau family whose building activity in the 1570ies influenced the architecture of some of the neighbouring families[92]. In the relatively detailed description of the no longer extant stately home at Bobenhausen, a building which was based in its structure on the vanished Nassau residences of Neunkirchen, Ottweiler and Philippsborn Bentheim mentions circular pavilions and a square tower, probably a gateway tower, that was built "out of well cut stones"[93]. His description reflects the main features of all Nassau residences which had either square or circular pavilions at the corners of a square or rectangular court. He inspected the exterior of Schloß Bobenhausen together with Johann of Nassau and Philipp of Hanau who accompanied him on a walk around the interior wall of the structure. They must have been aware of the significance of the corner pavilion, an architectural detail taken over from French architecture by German architects in the 1560ies. It was an important feature in French sixteenth century architecture where it structured the corners of square or rectangular courts of châteaux such as Ancy-le-Franc, Bury or Ecouen which were recorded and publicised in the accurate birds-eye views of Ducerceau's prints[94]. These prints were known in the Nassau family[95] and may have provoked some of the enthusiasm about this architectural design which was shared by their neighbour, the Landgrave of Hesse -Cassel. The landgrave who was a keen amateur architect designed hunting lodges and summer-residences (ill.3/4) all of which reflect the style of the Nassau residences in their use of corner pavilions[96 ]. In the drawings for the Schloß at Fahre the pavilions are attached to the corners of a free standing building which is placed on an artificial plateau. In the design for the summer residence at Waldau the illusion of a rectangular court is simulated by two storeyed walls with blind windows projecting from the sides of the main building as well as by four round corner towers. Like in the Nassau residences the facades are very simple, they are structured by horizontal mouldings which mark the floor divisions, undecorated window frames, portals and gabled windows[97]. It is likely that Bentheim saw these drawings when he stayed in Kassel for two months in 1600. He seems to have fulfilled the function of a personal adviser as well as ambassador of the landgrave and he may well have shared some of the enthusiasm about this design which must have had a twofold attraction to German rulers in this period. First the lack of classicising decoration which was stripped away in facades of the somewhat simplistic imitations of the French châteaux in Hesse and Nassau made the design easier to copy and cheaper to build. Second the emphasis on historical continuity of the pavilions which hark back to the towers of a medieval castle in a time when such fortifications were superseded by large fortresses better adapted to warfare with firearms must have appealed to rulers like Johann of Nassau and Moritz of Hesse who sought to revitalise the feudal claim to sovereignty. Bentheim, at the age of twenty may well have taken these men as role models for his own future ambitions.


The Patronage
The emphasis on the medieval past fits very well with the historical interest displayed in the diary and with the future ambitions of Bentheim who planned to build his residence in the castle of Rheda. The castle was located in one of the three territories, Rheda, Tecklenburg and Hoya which he took over from his mother in 1616. The most dominant architectural features of the castle were two large towers which must have appealed to Bentheim as a reminder of the glorious past of chivalry, particularly as they were thought to have been constructed by the Templar knights who were the alleged inhabitants of the medieval castle. In 1685 Moritz Meier mentions the "Knights of the Templars" who inhabited "this castle several hundred years ago" and cites and inscription[98] as well as a painting of one of the knights as evidence[99]. It may well be that this association with the Templars was initiated by Bentheim himself who may also have been responsible of the association of the round tower in the no longer extant castle of Tecklenburg with the Old Testament giants who were thought to have ended up in Germany after they were expulsed by the Israelites[100]. Bentheim was certainly fascinated by such myth. He recognised for example the Ovidian story of the giants building a tower into heaven in the Mantuan fresco, and he also records, as we have seen, different versions story of Cantaber taken from the works of John Caius and William Camden. The story of the order of the Templars which was secularised by the French king Philipp the Fair because of accusations of black magic and sinister rites such as the sacrifice of babies[101] might have appealed to Bentheim who records similar acts of cruelty in his diary[102]. On the other hand some writers like Boccacio or, in the sixteenth century, Torquato Tasso characterise the Templars as examples of medieval heroism, an association which might furnish a better explanation of his attraction of this order.

Curiously enough, Bentheim does not mention the temples in London and Paris. It is possible that he, like Thomas Platter, did not recognise the temple in London which was used as a law college whereas he probably saw the Parisian one but did not describe it as he left out Paris altogether in his diary. A curious link of the towers in Rheda and the temple in Paris was established by Matthäus Merian who in his 1646 topographical print of Rheda (ill.4) included the tower of the "temple" of the 1620 view of Paris as a imaginary addition to the skyline of the castle. Whatever the origin of the Templar myth may have been, it fits well into the context of the contemporary idealisation of the medieval past which is reflected also in the pavilion architecture of the late seventeenth century, a design which has amongst its ancestors the castles of another military order, the "Deutschordenritter". Given the medieval associations of his castle and the fashion for the updated historicism which was explained to him during the visit to his cousins it seems likely that he also thought of reorganising the castle in Rheda along the lines of this new style.

The choice of the architect, a certain Laurentz von Brachum who lived in the neighbouring town of Wiedenbrück in the first decade of the seventeenth century indicates that Bentheim might have had a rather grand scheme in mind when he began his efforts[103]. Brachum was one of the architects employed at Schloß Horst (ill.5), the first German stately home which adopted the four corner pavilions as a structural feature. The buildings designed by Brachum at Hovestadt, Assen, Geist, Overhagen and Nehlen have like Schloß Horst large circular or square corner pavilions[104] which correspond in size and proportions to the medieval towers at Rheda. It was not uncommon to integrate medieval towers into these constructions of the "Weserrenaissance". At Assen two of the circular towers are fragments of the medieval castle which was rebuilt by the architect[105].

The remains of the castle at Rheda may have been the starting point for a scheme of reconstruction which included the construction of two additional pavilions conforming with the scheme of the other buildings designed by Brachum as well as the new Nassau residences. Bentheim was the patron of this architect only for a very brief period. For whatever reasons his ambitious plan was soon abandoned and Brachum's name is not mentioned in the bills after 1606 when Bentheim seems to have decided to adopt a more unambitious and practical approach which comprised the construction of an additional wing that was superimposed over the slightly curving wall of the medieval structure. It is only the court facade which is decorated with simple ornamental sandstone bands (ill. 6)which are a common decorative element of the Weser area linking up the window frames[106]. The facade is structured by a balustrade (ill.7) in the second storey which fulfils the function of the corridor in Hanau linking up the various rooms at the interior and an oriel (ill. 8) that extends over the first and second floor. Both elements are likewise not unusual in the Renaissance architecture of the Weser[107]. Apart from the diamond patterns on the gable there is little evidence of the influence of Laurenz von Brachum exuberant brickwork decorations. The bills of 1612 which record the payment of the brick deliveries and of the bricklayer Peter of Wiedenbrück, the carpenter Hermann of Bielefeld and the sculptor William of Bielefeld do not mention an architect[108]. It is not inconceivable that Bentheim himself co-ordinated his craftsmen although we cannot assign to him the function of an architect such as Moritz of Hesse. He was certainly unable to restructure the building according to a unified design as in the Hesse and Nassau residences. He probably had to rely on the expertise of the local craftsmen which explains the presence of sculptural elements of the Weser as well as the somewhat practical approach to the restructuring of the medieval remains which are partly incorporated in the outside wall of the Renaissance wing. The amateur architecture at Rheda explains also that none of the previously existing buildings such as the gate-house next to the western tower had to make way to a more unified design. The simplicity and the modesty of the Renaissance architecture at Rheda, which respects rather than reshapes the medieval remains of the castle is indicative of Bentheim's insecurity in the face of the past.

This insecurity, which we observed in the diary whenever he was faced with unusual tasks such as the description of off-beat architecture in England and Hesse brought about a rigourous formality and led to an attempt to represent the objects described with the greatest possible correctness. It is, I think, possible to draw an analogy between the frame of mind which reflects itself in the diary and the patronage of the architecture in Rheda, where Bentheim again, as he was faced with the difficult task of reorganising the structure of the castle, reverted to a rigourous conservatism. This conservatism remains firmly within the limits of the local tradition although the minimalism of the decoration reflects to some extent the simplicity of the Hesse-Nassau facades which, as we have seen, display little decoration. Bentheim's achievement as a patron and supervisor of the building in Rheda, however, lies in the very tact and sensitivity with which he integrated the Mannerist addition to the castle with the existing structure (ill. 9/10) which seems to reflect the natural diplomacy that his biographers are so keen to emphasize. The wing he built keeps the proportion of the two monumental towers of the early thirteenth and fifteenth century, which remain an impressive reminders of the chivalrous myth, similar in character to what Bentheim saw embodied by them when he first took residence in Rheda.


Bibliography
...................................................................................................................................................................

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Frankfurt
Anno 1598. 25. Mart. Merk. Mane zu Frankfurt zur Gersten, da der Hoffmeister Galen eingezoge, daselbst im Closter zum Bruedern hinder der Gersten, dass kunstreiche gemaehls in der Kirchen ad sinistram gesehen 5. Trinitatis, so 1509 gemahlet,und noch so frisch, as wan es neuwlich gemahlet.
Item uff der Mayn bruecken doe Muelhe gesehen, da 2.wasser rader 4. maehlgelind treihen. Item daselbst im Carmeliten Cloister ist der Prior ein Grave von Fuerstenbergs. Peim selben Closter ligt der Nassawische hoff. Item in der Maun strassem palatium Friderico vel Conraddinor itzo der Saalhoff genannt.
Jegen den abend nach Hanauw gefahren und da zu nacht gessen.
                    Hanau
26. Jovis, mane mit Gr. Phil. von Hanauw umb der newen garten und newe Statt gerumb gefahren: A prado mit auss geritten spatzieren und auff die Jagt im Walde.

27, Venneris. Mane kam Graff Johan von Nassauw der Juenger gen Hanau, da dam auch S. Gemahllin dahergefahren man noch dissen tag wu Hanaw pleibe muessen, A prando zusammen aussgefahren, und abentessen im gruenen gehalten.
Notetur zu Hanauw der newe grosse Saall, so 17.passus breit nd 50 . passus langs, ohne pfeiler,hat grosse hohe finster, oben rundt, und oben jeden noch ein rundt oval fenster. Ingredienti zum haubt ad textram ist ein gross ander gemach zum silber kamer oder sonst zu endt ein aussganck und gallerey, da man dass ringrennenen inwendich der mauren sehen wirt.

28. Saturni a prandio mit Graff Johan von Nassauw dem Juengeren und Graff Philipsen von Hanauw von Hanauw durch die newe abgeplockte Statt nach dem Mayn iegen Steinheim uebergefahren; Nota Sternheim Schloss und Staedchen Meintzisch, darnach ad sinistram am Mayn ligend gesehen Seligstatt ein Statt und Abdey: hinc durchs walt biss gen Bobenhusen zu Graff Hans Reinhart von Hanaw, ist 2. meill von Hanaw. Nota Bobenhausen ein Herschafft, Statt und Schloss. Ibidem ante coenam umb den inwendigsten wall gangen, hat an 4. ecken ronde tuern,und aussen noch ein wall und 3. wassergraeben zusammen hat dass Schloss viel pheren? mitten im Schloss ein solcher Viereckiger turm, unbher mit hohen feinen steinen gebew und gemachen.

29. Lunae von Bobenhausen concio in der Statt kichen.Inde in equili dz bunte pferdt, und equum q, Hermaphroditus gesehen.

30. Lunae von Bobenhausen biss Eberstatt d. den von Franckenstein nobilib. zugehoerig, so ad sinistram daiegen ueber hoch uffm berge Ihr Schloss und wonung haben- 3. m. prandium hic. Germerstheim St.
am Rein, aldo uebergefahren, abents zu Wormbs im weissen Schwanen, Reichstat. Nota am Markt ein schon gebew, die Muentze genant, mit gemahlß und etlichen Keysern bildniß, ubi in eadem Basilca maxime praelucet effigies Fred.III. Imp. Anno 1493.
cum subscripsit versibus:
Astra Deo nil majus habent, nil Caesare terra, si terram Caesar,si regit astra Deus.

Item Hercudes.
Cui parebo miser: placet haec, placet illa, sed ambas
Qui sequar: haec calum, cogitat illa stygem.
Virtus ad Dextram
Huc Jove nate fradum flectas,hac itur ad astra,
Honos principium, finis Olymus erit.
Cantra Voluptas ad sinistram.
Huc o flos juvenum propera, per amaena rosarum
Atria te ducam, regna beata vides.
Cui proxime Jupiter.
I fer opem Pallas virtuti, fractaqs cedat
Altera, namqs stat hoc ordine agone salus.

31. May. Von Wormbs biß Franckentall St Pfaeltzisch. z. m. Inde Speyr 4. klein meil. Zu im Einhorn. Nota hic, dz Muenster, der Oelberg, und die Audtentz und Cammergericht gesehen. Im Muenster monumenta Imperatorum, ubi Epitaphium:
Filius hic, Pater hic, Avus hic. Proavus iacet isthic

1. Juny. Merc. Zu Speyr a prando in der Audientz die urteill hoeren ablesen. Inde bey D. Hertzbach im garten, Ibide coenatum, da Doctor Breituacker Assessor. Item ein Holsteinscher Junger vom Adell Garendorff guant. Ih Doctor Ziegler gener Heresbachy, Ih einer des Graven von Leinigen Rhat oder Diener.

2. Jovis, in prandio: D. Hertzbach D. Zeigler, sein bruder auch D. D. Rosenthall.
In coena: D. Christian Bart wegen Brandenburg Churfh. D. N. Teugnagell wegen Burgundt, D. Bender wegen Schwebischen Kreiss, D. Melchior Trechsell (der dicke man) [crossed out] wegen ober Rheinschen Kreiss. D. Johan Peter Breittuacker wegen Oberrheinischen Kreiss, fuit Hanawisch, Item Melchior von der Wycks, wegen Nieder Rheinischen oder Westphelischen Kreiss. Ih D. Albada D. Rosenthal. Item Juncker Garendorff Holsteinischer von Adell. Item noch ein Kriegsman in aschgrawen wambess [crossed out] Nicolauss Colles ein bruttischer von Adell.

3. Juny veneris . Mittag zu Speyr zur Suppen [crossed out]:D. Ziegler, sein bruder, D. Rosenthall. Camerarig Norimberg. Filius Bar. a Buxtel cui G. Ad. dedit Itras ad C. de N. inde eos comitatus est Judex Jo. S. usqs ad op. Kreishausen, distans spira medio milliari, [...] Inde pergentes a dextra vidimus arcem Eidemont sede Epl spi. Item transiimus per oppidum March. Turlachensis noie Grauen  Vesperi hora 8. Turlach St. Marchionis sedes, distat Spira 4. mil. In der Herberh Zur Kronen.

4, Sab. Turlag, ubi salut. C. Essart de Frislandt, meridie in hospitio ubi inventavimg N. Ramigar. cons. Pr. Progressi, supradicto cons. comitati, vidimus in monte arcem Eberstem, inde transiimus per urbem Rastat, ubi etiam ascem habet Machio. Vesperi Baden [St.] ubi vidimus a sinistra in altiss. mote ruinas arcis Badensis: In ipsa vero urbe arcem novam Princeps habet. hic est fons calidiss. salientis aquae in medio urbis. In der Herberg Zum Ungemach. 4.mill.

5. Sontag. haben wir den morgen das Fuerstlich Schloss zu Baden gesehen, alda ein schoner Saal, welcher 36. schritt lang ist, und 16. breit, haben alhie im Keller wein getruncken, welcher A. 1471 gewachsen und noch herlich git ist. Darnach sind wir an ein stetlein komen Stolhouen, dieses ist ein festung, ist [auch] Markgaeflich. 2. meill von dannen haben wir ein stetlein fnden, samt ein schloss heist Lichtenau, ist Hanawisch, Vesperi zu Strassburg, alda G. Ad die Brugk gewessen, seiner schritt 120[0.] und 16. In der herherg gessen, mit 2. [Merrischen] Herren, [von Kueppu,] und einen von Saradetzky.

6. Montag. Zu Mittag auf der Ammeisterstub, alda der Staetmeister [Lettenheimer,] und der Ammeister [-N.-] gewesen. Den nachmittags haben wir dass Zuchthauss gesehen, alda wir 210. grobe metallen stuecken gezalt In drey unterscheidne heuser, Item einen Pott vonn Messings darin die von zuerch den brey hieher bracht. Item ein halben Walfisch kopff gesehen, welcher 6. Brabensche elen lang, und 2. breit, welcher 112 centner und 84. Pfundt gewiegen: Item ein rippe und ruckebut? wigt 24. pfundt: Vesperi ein losement bekomen bey V [N.] Rode beim Pfen. thurn.

Juny 7. dingstag. Mane nach Pappi Predigt hora nona auff den thurn gestigen,biss oben auff die Vier schneken, die erste treppe auss der Kirchen biss ausswechterheusse hat 321. stafelen, die ander an die 4. schneken, die wir auffgestigen 173. stafelen. Mittag in unserm Losement, alda die Graffen von Schwartzburg gewesen, so erst auss Frankreich komen. Nachmittag die uhr in der kirchen besehen, und auch ander kunstuck, die unss der Meister in seinem hauss hatt lassen sehen. Vesperi S. Reuber und Gerhard Soding. Zu gaste.

8. Mittwoch. Mane dass collegium besehen, Item der Herren stall, den Bruder hoff, dass Truckses Losement und des Bischoffs hoff, Mittach in dem Logement mit den Graffen von Schwartzenburg, Hans Gunter und Christan; Nachmittag das Spital besehe, welches gar woll gebaue, und ein tonne goldtz iarss inkommem hat, alda wir im keller wein getrunken von Anno erstlich 1525. Danach vom Jaer 1529 Endtlich 1472. Vesperi in hospito cum comiti Swarzenb.

9. Donnerstag, meridie zm losement, Nachmittag im Janniterhaus, alda wir ein grossen Saal gewesen, da die planken unden und oben 20. schritt lang. In der kirchen ein grabstein, da das Newenarsche wappen auff gehawen, Anno 1493. Obiit Venerahilis Dnus Nicolaus Comes de Nevenare et in Sarwerdern Eeetae Majoris Argentinensis canonicus. Vesperi alda gessen.

10. Freitag, meridie in hoapitio, Nachmittag die Cantzley unnd Pfaltz besehen, denn abendt zm Losement, conviva .

11. Sambstag, den morgen umb 4. uhr von Strassburg gereiset mit 3. huerkloepfers, ahsumto solo Johanne, praefectoqs, proprio equs utente, meridie pervenimg in Essas Zabbern. 4. mil. ubi ad hircum hospit. ingressi atqu a Barone Krichingensi -cig loci gubernatore invitati, acceptis ad eo literis ad Comitem de Salm, additoqu ab ipso nobis tubicire?- circa tertiam venimus in Pfaltzburgs, et vesperi in oppidum Zarburg Lotharing. 3. mill.

12. Sontag mane hora quarta von Sarburg biss gen Blatrimont [Blancmont] zur cronen in der Werstatt. 4. mill, alda umb 11. uhr ahnkommen ist Lotharingisch, Stat und Schloss. Vesperi zu Neufville Lotringss Ist 3. meill in den Herberg an S. Esprit.

Juny 13. Montag. Den Mittag zu S.Nicolas St . Lothrings, ubi tunc forum, hanc abluit fl. Saumone. 2. m. In der Herberg zum Engel. Ibi vidimus ad dextram coenobium in monte nomine Hamot Abbaie, Vesperi a Nanci haec metropolis Lotharingica, hic Dux aulam alit, coferme horarum spatium detenti fuimus, anteq ingressus pateret, Nanci ablnci? fl. Meurthe. In itinere vidimo comiterum, ubi crux lapidea a Principissa uxore Principis Anthonii Lotharingici in honorem mortuorum erecta, et in perpetuam rei memoriam, quoniam in illa planitie Dux Carolus urbem clam oppressurus peryt, cum magna suorum clade: Anno 1466. Vesperi in diversorio ad signiferum, ante coenam vidimo stabulum principis, ubi erat niger equus Germanicus emptus 1000. florenis aureis hic arcem principis, principemqu ipsum cum Cardinale filio, eosqu equis insidentes extra urbem comitati, vidimus munitione in suburbium, vidimus arborem erectam,frondibus ornatam, huic impositae spartae insidebant 5. feles inclusae, et Martis bestiola infra sportam, (Erat autem haec arbor repleta pulvere bombardico) vemit Princeps, comitaatus Cardinale filio asino insidente, reliquiqu duobo filys, uxoribo, item et filiabo, reliquisqu virginibo aulicis, duobo curribo vectis, atqu ipse sumpto igne arborem lignis circundatam accendit, atqu ita feles, rupta urna in ignem semivivae incidunt: in urbe reversi in omnibo plateis vidimo ignes accensos, faeminas, puellas, viros et pueros forum agitantes, id quod quotannis hoc die, festum crastinum Johannis praecedente celebratur.

14. Dienstag Vormittag die kirch besehen, darin die begrebnuss Caroli Burgundi, additis his versibus
Carolus hoc buso, Burguna gloria gentis
Conditur, Europae qui fuit ante timor.
Canda rebellarix, hoc plebs domitore crematz,
Post patriae leges, perpete pressa jugo e.
Nec minus hunc sensit tello Leodia cruentum
Cum ferro et flammis urbs populata fuit;
Monte sub Heritio, Francas cum Rege cohortes
In pavidam valido truserat ense fugam..
Hortibo expulsis, Eduarun ub regba kicavut
Anglica, primaevo restituems solio.
bella ducum Regumqu et Carsaris oia spernens,
Totus in effuso sanguine laetus erat.
Denique cum solitis fidit temerarius armis.
Atqu Lotharingo cum duce bella movet,
Sanguinam vomuit media inter plia vitam,
Aureaqu hostili vellera linquit humo.
Ergo triumphator longaeva in secla R?enatus
Palmam de tanto Principe victor habet.
O tibi qui terras quesisti (Carole) colum
Det Deus, et s[retus antea [acis opes.
Nunc dic, Nancaeos cernens ex aetheremuros
Discite tessesnis quid sit confidere rebus,
Hic toties victor, deniqu victo adest.
Le midi avons mange a Phostellerie du Portenseigne, et apres disner sommes parti, estans venus hors de la ville ad dext. vidimus une maison de plaisance du Duc appelle male grange, estans passe ontre vidimus un cinietiere, ou en une pierre estoient engraves ce carmds.
Mil quaternes soixante et seize advint,
Que charles duc de Borgongne yci vient,
Accompagne de soudarts dt gendarmes,
Cuidant Nancy surprendre a force d'armes,
Veille de Roy quon depart le gasteau,
Il fut occis en passant un ruisseau,
Et la plo part de ses homes de guerre,
Furent occis et semes sur la terre,
Puis receullis par comadement
In preux Rent, qui vertneusement,
Obtient sur eux gloriense victoire,
D'ont les corps cy sont gisans en memoire,
De ce conflict Reneede Bourbon ,
Noble Princesse ayant vouloir tresbon
Femme du tres illustre duc Anthoine
Fils du Rene nobles ducr de Loraine,
Ont faict batir ce cymitiere et croix
L'an mil cinq cens vingt et trois,
Prier a Dieu q par sa saincte grace,
Aux trespasser perdon et merciface,
       Amen
Vesperi a S. Nicolas a la corne du beuf, a la grand hale.

Juny 15 Mitwoch voon S. Nicolas getzogen, uund alss wir drey meil forter kome, kamen wir an ein kreutzwech, et prenans le chemin a la main droicte,vaissant Catanbri Schloss a la main gauche, arrivismes a Baccarac St. und Schlos fort den Cardinaal von Lotring, ist 4 1/2 meil von S. Nicolas, ou ayant fait collation, nous vismes le soir a selle,dorf, ist 1 meill alda zum hiesthf?.

16. Donerstag zu Cherneck d. zu Mittaach gessen, sint 4. meill, Vesperi zu Moltzen, St.2. meill, hie zum Beren herberg, alda das Jesuiter Collegium besehen.

17. Freitach ad textram vid. la maison du Seigr: de Mersburg,ad sinistram Dachstein Schl. und St. hic residet Admi. Brandeburgicus. Mittag zu Strassburch.3, meill. Vesperi Strassburg in der Herberg------etc.

18. Sambstag, meridie in diversorio, vesperi invitati fuimo a comite Ludwico Witgensteinio.

Juny 19. Sontag. Meridie in hospitiok Vesperi invitavimus N. Dasipoium, et Gerhardum Soding.

20. Montag, den Mittag zu Strassburgh gessen, jora 12, von dar getzogen, sein wir 2. meil von dar an ein stettlein komen Benfelt genant, ist ein schone festung gehoret dem Cardinall de Loraine, alhie ist der Haricourt Oberster. seind agernoch 3. meil forter gezoge biss ein dorff Eberstet genandt zur Sonnen gelegen, ist von Strassburg-----5. meill.

21. Dingstag a sinistra vidimus urbem Impery Schletzstat. 1. meil. Meridie venimus in urbem Impery Colmar, atqu ibi im diversoritm noie mons niger 4. mill. distans a pago suprad. a dextra vidimus arces Hohenlandsberg in cacumine montis, estqu Dominorum de Swendi, in est alio monte arcem Hohenkonigsberg, q'est nobilium a Sickingen. vesperi in oppidum ENTZEN, distat Calmaria 3. mill. Entzen est oppidum sub imperio Archiducis Ferdi. hic cameram alit. In itinere transiimus per oppidum Hellecretz, quod e Colmariensium a sinistra in cacumine montis est oppidum Brisach, hinc distans 3, mill. Ibi pons in Rheno qui abouit montem. Attamen in urbe tanta aquae penuria, ut incolae hydriam 1.denario emere cogantur.

22. Mitwoch,umb 1. uhr zu Basell von Fertzen? 6. meil, ibi comitante M. Bruxtorfio vidimo Epitaphium Eras. Rot.
Christo servtore.
S. Des. Erasmo Roterodamo Viro omnibus modis maximo, cujus incomparabilem in omni disciplinarum gnre eruditionem pari conjunctam prudentia possteri et admirabuntur et praedicabunt. Bonifacius Amerbachius. Hier: frobenius Nic. Episcopius haeres et nuncupati supremae suae voluntatis vindices patrono optimo, non menoriaee, quam immortalem sibi editis lucubrantionibus comparativit ys tantisper dum orbis teratum stabit superfuturo, ac eruditis ubiqu gentium colloquuturo, sed corporis mortalis quo reconditum sit ergo hoc saxum posuere. Mortuus est quarto ad Juil,  septuagenarius. Ao a Christo nato 1535.
Vesperi gest in diversorio D. Amardum Polancum affine timmero (Is fr. in It. adfuit) et M. Buxtorf.

23. Dommerstag zu Basell mane in Publ. auditorio ein promotion gesehen, da einer genandt Joan. Amplias Soschinius promovirt wwardt von D. Platero, weches weret ungeferlich 2 1/2 stund, den Mittag zu gast gebetten, dar alda pofessores zusamen gewesen, dis hat gewert biss umb 4. uhr post meridiem, uumd alss dass geschehen, seind
Raphael Lescinius de Lesgno
Andreas Lescinius de Lesgno }fratres
2. Polinsche Heren und andere Polinsche van Adess, deren praeceptor novus Doct. gewesen, mit unss, sampt Polano spatzieren gangenn, auff einen schonen platz, Pfaltz genannt, vesperi im Losement. hospes Franciscus Castilion.

24. Freitag, mane von Basell gezoge, Mittag in ein gissen 3. meill von Basell, vesperi zu Mompelgart, seint-----6. meill.
[...]
25. de Mompelgart a Bisancon, metropolis Burg. 7. m. Hic cum tardio esset portaequ nobis venientibo clausae ante urbem in parvulp pago pernoctare coacti fuimus.

26. Mane ingressi urbem vidimo situm ejus amoeniss. hanc abluit fl. ab altera parte defendunt montes altiff. ita ut facile accessus non pateat.

27. Comitati Chateauneuf et Perrot. f. invimus in Salinst. Burg. m. 8. [Salinces est au Prince d'Orange] Ibi vidimus Salinam, quam ibi Rex habet.
[...]
28. in Champignol d. Burg. ubi nocte mansimus---4. m.
[...]
29. Mittag zu Morbien Dorff, vesp. Nion stat Schweitzer.
[...]
Genf 30. Zu Genff. 3. meill.
[...]
July 1.

          
August
Den 27. zu Bergamo, das Bastel auff dem Berg, la capella genandt,des Podasta und Capitains hauss auf den Capitein in die mess sehen gehen.

den 28. still gelegen.

den 29. gen Meiland, bey dem teutschen trabanten Christoffer zur Herberg getzogen.

den 30, den dohm, des Hertzogen Pallatz, den Hertzog [Duca di Terra Nova] sehen zu Rast gehen, darnach auff dem Thumss thuern, welcher gleichfals, wie die kirch, von grund auff von weiss Marmell gebawet, von daunen die Hertzogin seheb zu kircheb tragen In einer senfften [stuhl] von 2. menneren, umbher mit gruen taffet behenckt hinter Ihr her wart ein alte fraw von 2. mennern gefuehretn zur feiten giengen Ihre teutsche trabanten, deren der Hertzog 50. hat, aller negst von der senften [stuhl] ging Ihr beichtvatter,vor demselben Ihre Junkers, ward also in der kirchen auff ein [Teppich] auff die erde nidergesetzt, dar 2. rotsamte kuessen aufflagen. Item alda ein nagel vom creutz Christi durch ein fenster gesehen.

den 31 Das Castel besehen, alda 200. Metallen stueck auff der maur gestanden, under welchen 4. mit dem Saechsischen wappen und namen des Chur: I.F.C. welche dieselbe Carol.V. abgenommen. Danach dass Closter St Ambr: besehen, darinne in der [kirchen] die ehen schlang so Moses auffgericht, darnach in dem Umbgang gangen, derer 2. neben ein ander, und oben auch einer breitt wie die andere, alda gar schoene gemach und muenchen [zellen] alda ein muench zu unss kommen, so lang in Teutschlandt gewesen, dieser furt uns rumbher, und darnach praesentirt es unss kaess, brott, und herlichen wein.

den 1. Sept. still.

Sept. 2. Nach Pavia getzogen 4. teutscher meill von Meilandt, under wegeus ein schon Kloster besehen , la Carthosa genent, in quo est pulcher rimum templum totum Marmoreum a Joh: Galeacio constructum: idem castellum Papiae construxit, et Hortum cujus muro se ultra 20. milliaria extendit, unde fertur dixisse se velle aedificare una caetta, una capella, et un [giardinetto.] Ad summum altare quod itidem marmoreum erat et pulcherrimis gemmis ornatum ab utroqu latere pendebant duo ova [struthiocameli.]
[NB:
casetta, est arx pauiae, capella, carthosa. Hortulus, est horty in quo carthosa sita, cusur circunferentia se extendit ad 90. mil. in hoc horto capto fuit
Francisco I. Gallia Rex.]
Vidimus Epitaphium cum hac inscriptione:
Joha: Gaoeac: Vice com: primo Med: Duce ac priori ejus uncti [uxeri] Carthusiani memores gratiqu posuerunt Anno 1562. 10. Decemb. A latere in lapide excisum erat et Hooc JOH.GAL.I. DUX MESIOLANI Hoc Templ. construxit, vixit annis 47. obyt 142. mediolani regoavit a:24. Inde Papiam ubi Monasterium St: Ambr: in ingrssu Monastery in arcu Portae vidimus haec sequentia: LUIDBRANDUS; LONG. REX inclytus ob translatrm D. AUG: corpus templum hoc [simul Abbatiale coenobium canonicis regularibo ibi degentibus cum totoe instauravit. 722.
Secunda translatio St: Patris Aug. 720. ex Sardinia hanc Ecclesiam ubi morabantur monachi S. Benedicti iuxta privileg: Luidbrandi Regis Conrad: IMP, 850 OTHONIS Regis 960 et Frid. Imp. 1159. [Prima translatio] Carthagine ubi mortuus est in Sardiniam facta est, nam Constantinopoli
[a Sarracemis Capta, captus & Ambrosius moritur.
Papia tr? fluidum Tincinum.]
In Monasterio S.Aug: supradicto vidimus arcam S. Augustini totam Decemb: Ad ostium capellae in qua pide haec verba: A. 1525. 24. Febr. Franciscus. Richardus de Lapoole dux Suffolchiae et aly proceres hic sepulti.

Sept. 3. Papia Chiaravellan 36. meiles.

4. Chiaravella Genuam 30. meilen, alda dess Herzogen xon Gerua Pallatx, und in selbst auss der Mess zu raht sehen gehen. Voruher gingen seine Junckern, und hinder und neben ihm 24. Radtsherren in langen schwartzen Damasten Roecken, er selbst hatte einen langen rock von rodt seiden atlass. Daranach in St: Francis: kirch gangenn, alda ein schoene Carell von lauter Marmorr, dass gewelb all uebergueldt, unter dem altar gieng man [eine] Marmelsteinen trep, hinder alda widerumb ein gewelb schoner als ss dass oberst von allerley farber, marmer und Edelgestein eingelegt: und stundt diss darin geschrieben: S. Crucis et spineae coronae plurimisqu sanct: reliquiis e superiori templo nuper huc translatis Lucas [Grimaldo] Francisci filius sacrarium hoc P. C. A. S.t 1578.

Den 5. Septemb. In einss Edelmans Pallast 2. Probierstern gesehenn, in forma obelisci, deren ein meiner spannen 12. hoch, unde 3. und 4, finger preitt, uund 1 1/2 spannen dick.

6. Sept. Auff den Genueser mehr gefahren biss zu batiren? thuern, alda stets 3. teutschen und ein waelscher soldat wacht halten, dieser hatt 365. stafflen, die leucht ist so gross, dass 30 persohnen darin stehen konne, und waren darin 30, lampen mit oell, die man dess nachts anstickt, halbeweg uber einer thuer, so auff ein galerey hinauss gieng stundt geschrieben, wie folgett, A: a Christo nato 1543. restitutae libertatis 16. Petro 10: cibo. clavica. 10. Bapt: Lercariu u." F. et Lucianus Spinula G. G. F. Patres communes instaurarunt hanc turrim, quam dim majores nostri struxerant, et quae 1512. in oppugnatione arcis Laternae tormentis diruta fuerat.

8. Sept. still.

9. Sept. von Genua nach Sciaravella.

10. Sept. gen Pavia.

11." gen Piatenza.

12. zu Parma.

13. still, La casetta besehen das palatium, das Cabinet, den hoffgarten, uund brunnen, das newe Castel.

14.Septemb. zu Modenaw.

15. Nach Bolognien.

16. zu Fiorenzole.

17. zu Florinza.

18. Die thier gesehen, die den Hertzogs zu ein hauss verwarrenn lest, alss Loewen, Beren uund Tigertier, und ander: darnach in den stall gangen, darin wir ein seinbock gesehen: danach auff denn Domsthuern, welcher 534 staffelen hatt, darauff in dem Kuopff 13. Personen stehen konnen. Darnach den Marckt besehen, dar des Cosmi Medices bildtniss von Metall auff ein pferdt gemacht, und ander mehr. Item zu S. Lorentz ein biblilteck gesehen, derin ein gantzen hauffen buecher all manuscripti, unteranderen 2. so dass ein Virgilius selbst, und das ander Petrarcha geschrieben, und eins so auff bast geschriebenn. Darnach dass corridor besehen, alda viel schoener gimaehls und bilder vo Marmerstein. Darnach das Pallatz, dess Hertzogen gemach, und den Jungen Printzen mit den frewlein hinauss fahren, Item eine brueck, welche sillae soldaten gebawet, und ist die eltest in gantz Florentz.

den 19. von florentz gen Siena.

den 20. gen 5. Quirico.

den 21. Mittag zu Radecoffoli, dieses ist oben auff ein berg gelege, und ein gewaltige festung, hort dem h. von folrentz. Den abend gen Lorentz.

den 22. Mittag zu Viterbe. Den abend gen Roncigli[one]

den 23. Mittag zu Baccano. des abendt zu Rom.

Septemb.
den 29. Basilicam Petri und die Newe Kirch, so Sixtus S. gebawet, LI Castello St. Angelo gesehen, und [?] obiliscum so vor der Kirchen stehet, In Hadriant begrebnuss, welches von Metall, und ist wie ein drenhap gemacht, umbher sein vier seulen, so das [dagh] dass drueber, auffhalten.

den 25. Sept. Auff S. Petri seul gestige. hatt 182. stafelen, stehet unden an geschrieben:
Senatus P. Q. R. Impt. Caes. Divi Nervae F. Nervae Trajano Aug. Germ. [Dacico], Pont. Max. Trib. Pot. XIII. M. P. VI. COS. VI. PP. ad declarandum quantae altitudines mans et locus tantis sumptibus sit egestus.
Item S. Maria rotunda, hinc palat. Monteravallo. Alda Ihm garten das brumewerk gesehen, die orgel, kuckuck und ander Vogel hoeren singen. Item Bacchi begraebnuss besehen, leit alleruegst bey S. Agnese aufferhalb Portapia, hinc al palatio del Cardinal mont alto ein Camel gesehen, dem 24. Inss grosshertzogen Pallast gewesen, welches gar schon ist, heist al colle [degli hortuli.]

den 26. des Pabsts Pallatium gesehn, dar ein schone Gallerei dar alle konigreiche der welt abgemalt, darnach in sein Garderobbe alda dess Pabsts silber werk gesehen, uund unter anderen ein gross schwert dauon die scheide lauter golt: darnach sein schlaffkammer uund studiol gesehen, alda ein crucifix von lauterem golde. Von danne in S. Pabst sacrister gangen, alda alles was zur mess gehort von Cristal gemacht und in gost eingefast, Item das Pabst Pontificialia und Mitern, auch 2. guldene kelch mit edelstein eingelacht die der gros Cosenus dem Pabst verehrt, Item ein gross Creutx von Cristall darin ein stuck vom creutz Christi, darauff die gantz Passion aussgeschnittenn, Item in ein anderen Creutz ein dorn von der Cronen, die Christus auff dem haeubt Auch in ein guldenen kropff ein stick vom schwam. Item die 12. Aposteln gantz von silber. Unter denn Caselen gaben wir 2. gesehen, so wol mit Perlen besetz waren, die dem Pabat der Konig vonn Portugal verehret, einss in Indien das ander in Srannien gemacht, In dem altar war unten ein Kopf ienes Martirsss, so vor 2000. jaren verbrandt, und noch fleisch darauff wahr, Ih ein hembt von einer Junferen so vor 200. Jar gemartert, dar noch blut in hings. Darnaach die Caoell dar der Pabst selbst Mess in helt.

den 27. mit der carrohe gefahrenn, erstlich nach S. Maria Trastevere , alda ein baum da oly auss geflossen, von dannen a S. Maria in portico, do ein seul von Albaster oriental welche tag und nacht leuchtet, dass man dess nachts dabey lesen und schreibe kan, von dannen Pilati hauss, das tenplum Armenicum Schola Graeca, da ein grosser runder stein vor der thuer leit, mit eins mensches Angesicht und ein grossen maul, heist Bocca di verita, do die Alte Romer Ihre weiber mit probiret, uund von hinnen under al pie del monte Aventino hergefahren, auch bey des monte Testacio, und des Cesty begrebnuss, so in der Statt maur: Inde auss S. Pauli pfort gefahren, ubi primo vidimus supra januam capellae salutationem Pauli et Petri, inde a S. Paulo, aldar Pauli haupt unterm altar gefunden, hinc alle 3. fontane, alda Paulus enthauptet, uund sein Kopff 3. sprungs gethaen, dauon 3. brunnen entsprungenn, dipoi a S. Sebst dove entrati alla grotta, vidimus stationes ubi habitatunt Christiant ab Ethnicis persecutionem passi, hinc a, altera parte est longitudo clavis Christi, item ab altera parte templi fontem in quo corpora Petri & Pauli protecta [&] occultata fuenre, item mensam in qua Petro solitus fuit cibum capere: In egressu vidimus lapidem, qui Pauli ossa texerat, cui inscritum erat ehusdem epitphium: Postea portam S. Sebastiani, prope quam exstat porta per quam Carolus V. Vi ingressus est, deinde rudera thermarum Anthonini, hinc in hortum Carinalis Matthaei, qui multis statuis ornatus est, hinc a S. Giona[w] di Laterano ubi palatium pulcherrimis picturis auroqu ornatum, a Sixto S. inceptum, nec dum finitum, Item Aeneae columnae, Hierosolyma allatae, terra sancta repletae, quas hic Papa 12000. aureis deaurari jusset, quas in capellam pulcherrime ornatam atqu suo nomine nominata, [erexit] [Clemens 8.] In hoc templo sunt duae columnae marmoreae jerosolyma allatae, quae Christo moriente ruptae sunt, Item 4. columnae quae sustinent lapidem, qui refert longitudinem Christi et matris Mariae, Prope hoc est parvula capella , in qua est baptisterium Constant. Magni, et columna in qua gallus Petro Christum denegante sedens cantavit, unde plante ungularum ipsius in lapide videntur.

den 28. geruhet.

den 29. auss porta Pia spatzieren gangen, alda ueben einer Kirchen so S. Agnese genandt, ein runde Capell gemacht, wie S. Maria rotunda, oben mit einem fenster,leit drin Bacchos begraben, und ist ein grosser grabstein von rothen Marmel, dick 2 1/2 [palmas,] Ungefahrlich 9. oder 10. lang ist, gantz vor ein stein, wie auch der deckell.

den 30. das Campidoglium besehen, alda viell schoener antiquiteten.

October.
Den 1. Octob. von Rom gen Napoli in fuenff tager, nichts notatu dignum funden, alss die stett, Fondi [Itri, Bolitria, Terracina,] Moli uund Capua.

den 5. Octob. Zu Nap. ankomen.

den 6. still.

den 7. Castell auffm bergs besehe, nachmittag in einss Printzen Pallatz gangen, Alda den dantz zugesehen, weill der Printz vor 20. tagen hochzeit gehalten.

Den 8. In S. Dominici kirch gange, alda en einen Capellen, 4. Konig un 1. Konigin von Neapolis begebnis gesehen,aso vier schone kisten mit ein runden dekell mit Samt ueberzogen, etwn 3. man hoch von der erden an der maure festgemacht waren, hing eins inglichen rapier neben dran, zu beiden seiten waren mehr dergleichen von etzlichen Printzen und Fuersten auss dieser Statt.

Den 9. Vormittag den Vice Re. [sehen in die Mess] gehen weill in sein gemach und garten gangen. Darnach in obge Printzen Santobuono genant Pallatz gangen, alda widerumb den dantz zugesehen, waren viel vornehme Fursten uund Furstinnen bey ein ander, uund alss unss der Hertzog gesehen, lies er uns durch des Konings Grosstallmeisten Marches. Santelmo, uund durch einen ritter [Pignatello] mit ein rohten Creutz von dess Koniings Orden forderen, und durch der braut Kammer In saal hinder dass Frawzimmer fuehren, damit wir sie eigentlich besehen konten: Nach dem dantz ward ein Comedie gehalten biss in die nacht.

den 10 nach Putz[ol] abgerittenn, ungefehrlich 3. meil von der statt sein wur durch ein grossen ganck geritten, so unter einem hohen berg hergehet, ist ein welsche meil langs. [introitu nostis conspicitur magnum foramen, in quo ossa Virgily (..)sservantur.] Von dannen alla grotta del cane, do der man einen hund inwarff, der alssbald umvill alss wer er todt, nam in herauss, und warff In in den lacum Agnanum, do ward er lebendig, und lieff dauon: Darnach neben dem monte olylmpo her, biss alla solfatarra, alda mitten im thall ein pfull heiss siedens wassers. Inde vor Putzzol rudera Colisei et Academiae Cic. Darnach alda ein ein schonen garten, so D. Pietro di Toledo machen lassen collationert, inde obtenta a praeside licentia sein wir ans Meer geritten alda und auff kein anderen ort dass wasser kalt, und der sandt so warm, dass es in der hand brennte, zur rechten lag der monte lag der monte [Nouvo,] welcher A. 1538. den 29. Sept. In 24. stunder gewachsen, mit ein erdbidden, hatt statt und schloss Trepergola, sampt dem grossen Lago Pucrino bedecket, nicht weit [von] dannen leit der [Monte] Christo, hinder dem d Laco Avernus, [ahm] ufer desselben s pie del monte Ch. ist die Grotta Sibillae. auff der rechten seiten des Lac leit templum Apol. Zur linken teplum Minerva. A lacu Averno, al sudatorio di Frittola, da ein grewlicher dampff und hitz ist, so auss dreyen grossen locheren herauffer kompt; Zur rechten seiten leit allernegst Thermae Cic. welches die Salernitani Med. verstort. Alda In ein schiff gesessen, und ubers mehr nach [den ruinis] civitatis Bajae gefahren, alda oratorium Agrippinae besehen, darinnen ein wurtzel von ein baum die so hart wie stein, da wider auffgesessen, und uber den berg geritten, aldaa die ruinas villae [Marij], und weit auf der rechten seiten rudera cumae gesehe, uund weit im meer ein thurn, so noch von der Statt Patria do Scipio Afric. begraben, ubrig blieben, Inde al Mercato di Sabbato, alda in einer grotten Agrippina begraben, von dar neben dem mare mortuo her alle centl camere. Von dar alle Pscina mirabile, so Nero hat lassn machen, [(..)dem in loco sunt campi Elisei] dar wieder zu schiff gesessen, und unter eim felsen so Jul. Caes. hatt lassen durchhawen, hergefahren, oben auf denselben Villa Mameae und Alex. Caes. gewesen, do gegen uber leihen rudera Misenae urbis, und mons Misenus, unter am selben ist die Grotta Dragonaria, so Nero hat lassen machen, umb frisch wasser drin zuhaben. Darnach stracks uber nach Puzzol gefahren, so 3. welsche meilen uber meer von Miseno leit, nebe obgtes? felsen, vide supra X sicht man in dem Meer ein theill viae Appiae, so von Rom nach Misena gangen.

den 11. Oct. dass Castel nuovo besehen, darin Le sala reale, welcher gantz rundt wie einn kirch, gewaltigh hoch, hatt oben ein loch da dass licht herein gehet, und nach dem meer 2. grosse fenster naus. Darnach auff die 3. eusserste bolwerck gangen, dar 13. Saxische stuck auffgestander, diesr 2. gehen geraht auff die Statt, die ander 2. bolwerck naach dem Meer.

den 12. Octob. wie auch den 13. 14. 15 et 16. still.

den 17. von Naples gen Capoa.

den 18. gen Itri.

den 19. gen Case nove.

den 20. Marina.

den 21. zu Rom.

den 22. dass fest geseheb zu S. Pietro [=sc. aller Heiligen]

den 23. oct. von Rom getzogen gen Ronciglione.

den 24. Aquapendente.

den 25. Taxingola.

den 26. Siena mittag, den abend zu Stagio.

den 27. Florentz, den nachmittag al palatzo de pitti ein Comedie gesehen,welche der Groshertzog seiner Junckeren einen auff seiner hochzeit, die ehr Ihm gehalten, lassen spielen, Nach der comodie haben wir denn grosshertzog, sein gemahl, seins bruders tochter, und viel feins frawenzimmers gesehen.
den 28. In dess Grosshertzogs Guarderobbe, alta unter andere ein grossen kasten vol gantz guldenen geschir, so zum disch gehoren.

den 29. oct. Im pratelin geritte und darnach al castello del palzzo, do ein schoener garten, aber nicht so schon wasserwerk wie ihm Prattelein, der grau Prencipe helt sich do.

den 30. von Florentz al Bosco.

den 31. Mittag zu Pisa, alda eine schonen garten und ein kunstkamer gesehen, so der Hertzog den Studiosis Medicinae zugefallen hatt lassen zurichten, dar allerley seltzamer thieer und viel wunderbawlichs zusehen, inter alia,
Ein menschen kopf, so im meer funden, ist gantz schwartz, die haut ist zum stein worden, oben auss der hirnschalen ist Im einn rohter Corall und ein schwam gewachsen. Darnach dass Ritterhauss die Thumkirche, dass Bapt. Joan. dass ort do die erd von Jerusalem hinbracht, die doten die man doen begrebt seind un 24. stunden verwesen, nicht weit von dannen steht der glockturn, dieser ist rund, mit schonen peilern gezieret, sehet ganz krum, und wen man darin ist, sieht man so geraht uber sich hinauss alss wen er gar recht stunde. Diess ist einer von des 3. thurnes so der Gr Hertzog in sein landt hatt, der erst schwebt in der lufft und steht zu Florentz auf dem alten Pallatz auff 4. seulen, der ander thurn stehet auf der erden, und ist obige zu Pisa. Der dritte ist der zu Ligurno, do wir denselben abend hinkommen sein, dieses ist noch ein newe Stadt, so der Hertzog an Meer bawen lassen, leit 10. meil von Pisa, beim monte Negro, hie komen viel Englische und Hollendische schiff an, so im Candien fahren.

Novemb.
den 1. Nov. Von Ligurno mittag zu Pisa, den abend zu Luca. diese ist ein Respul. vor sich selbst, ist zimlich fest und lustig gelege, do haben wir der Herren hauss gesehen, do viel huepscher [Gemecher, ] da die Herren in wonetenn, und ein schoner sool, do man gericht in hielt, do war einn Cantzell, do die Ratzherrenn einer nach dem anderen aufstiegen, wsn sie Ir vota vorbrachte, auch etzlich rohte und weisse becher, da sei wan sie einen richte wolten, mit albo und rubro calculo, nach der Romer weise in wurfen.

den 2. Nov. In einss Edelmans Bernardi Bonvoso Pallatz gangenn, welches klein aber schon ist, hinden am hauss einen garten und schones Brunwerck, leit alla Luca nova.

den 3. gen Pistoia.
den 4. gen Florentz.

den 5. den morgen, auff die bereit schul gangen, do der Rustico Piccardini uund noch einer Morezino genandt reiten, darnach auff dass Corridor gangen, do der hertzogh und die Hertzogin Ihre kunstkamern haben, do viell schoner geschir von Cristall, unter anderen hat der hertzog einen kopff von Turkas so gross wie ein grosser apffel, auch ein schreibtisch von Ebenholtz mit vielen rubin, Perlin, aqua marina, amatistes, und funff schone Smaragd tafeln eingelegt, sein auch viel schone gemahls und andere kunstreiche sacheb drein.

den 6. von Florentz a Scarparie.

den 7. a Ligane.

den 8. a Bologne.

den 9. still.

den 10. a Malalbergo.

den 11. a Ferrara.

den 12. Nov. still.

den 13. Ins schiff gesessen, mit dem currier von Mantua, unnd die nacht und die folgenden tag im schiff blieben.

den 15. dess morgens zu Mantua ankommen, denselben tag dass Pallatium, die Guardarobbe besehen, alda unter anderen ein rapier un dolchen, dar 30. edelgesteine sein Im gefest, so mit deordband? von lauterem gold gemacht, Item ein sattell und zeug vonn braunem sammet, mit goldt gebordt, unnd schone edelgesteinn darauff verbremt, Von dannen inss hertzogen stall gangen, da 110. pferd in stehen, der ander so dargegen ueber hat woll 120 kutz pferd ein.

den 16. zu morgen auff dem Pallatz ein schonen grossen Saall gesehen, voller rustung, spiess und haken, so viell dass man 8000. Man dauon bewehre kan,
N. Es hat der hertzog noch ein Pallatium, in d hatt darinnen ein schoen hoch gewelb, darin oben aus dem Ovidia der turm welchen die Riesen auf den himmel thun wolten, abgemahlet. Wan man in einer ecken stehet und so leise redet als man will, so keiner hoeren kan durben einer stehet, kan () doch d and welcher In d ecken getten ()bn ist und? das athe an die no and helt, eigentlich hoeren.
[Unter anderen etliche aber harnisch so dem hoerigem Fuersten haben zugehert, den aberdt zu Verona.
den 17. den morgen auff den bereidtplatz gangen, den Bereiter Seignr. Balthesar sehen reiten, darnach In das Colliseum gangen, den abend still.
den 18. gen Vicentz,
den 19. gen Padua]
[...]
[den 13. Decemb. nach Venedigh gezogen.
den 14. n den hertzog gesehen In die Vesper gehen, und Musicam mitt 6. Ehoren halten
den 16. ist der aherttzog uber der Wasser gefahren, Ins Kloster S. Georgio, welches gar ein schon Kloster ist.
den 17 n. widder gegen Padua.
den 20. bey Doct. Galileo Galilea Mathematico Professore eingezogen.]
[...]

[den 27. In Macobe? Apoteck gangen, aldahe die Mummiam gesehen, von dannen al' Apotela di S. Lancrentzo, die Konigin von Agypten Isidem gesehen.]

Anno 1598.
30. Marty Von Padua gen Viacentz.[st.]

31. zu Verona. [st.]

2. Aprilis. gen Halla. [d.]

3. gen Avisgi. [d.]

4. zu Bolsan. [st.]

6. zu Steinach. [d.]

7. zu Insbruck, den nachmittah gen Ambres, daselbst den Margrauen von Burgaw gesehen, und den grauen von Schlick unnd Grauen zu Manssfeldt angesprochen. [+]
[+ zu Insbruck In der Capellen nachfolgendt Epitaphiam gesehen
            D. O. M.
Seremiss. Principi Deo Ferdinand Archduci Austria, Duci Burgundia, & Comiti Habsbugico & Tyrollenensi, Heroi inprimis magnanimo, pio, forti, acerri religionis Catolicae, institaequ [..] dici, A. 33.
In templo fr.24. aneae imagi
Erstlich Albrecht von Osten reichkomischer Ungarischer und Bemisch [..] Konig, Landisslaw Vatter.
3. Frederico Hertzog zu Ostn zu Steiher, Zrainten und zu C(..) Graue zu Tyroll.
4. Koenig Albrecht der erste herzog zu Ostereich 1527.
5. Godtfrid von Bulion Kom(..) zu Jerusalem
6. Frau Elisabeth Koning Sig(..)mundths dochter von Ungarn Albrecht des 5. von Ostereich Kom. Ungarischer. Bohem. + gem(..) Ladislai Mutter 1529.
7. Ferdinant Koenig von Hispanien, Kaiserliche und Koniglicher alther Vatter
8. Fraw Johanna Konigin von Astibien Konig Philiys gemahl 578.
9.Carl Hertzog zu Burgundiam und Brabandt, zu Gelderen, Grav zu Flanderen.
10. Fraw Maria Blanka Kom. Konigin, 1525.
11. Albrecht der Weisse Arch Aust, ein Sohn Konig Albrecht dess sighaften. 1528.
12. Clodoveus der 1. Christen Konig von Franckreich.]

8. In die Kirche gangen, unnd dar acht und zwentzigh Metallen bilder gesehen, welche etlicher Keiser biltnis waren. Von dannen in der Hertzoginnen Pallast gegangen und dasselbig besehen. [dieser lange hinunter/hinter? fahren] Den nachmittag nach Halle [st.], daselbst die saltzoede gesehen.

den 9. gen Schwatz [d.], daselbst das Berkwerck gesehen.

den 10. zu Rosenheim. [d.] [dieses Imer hinunter bis gen Passaw und alda die Donaw hinunterbis gen Wien.]

den 11. zu Muehldorf. [d.]

den 13. zu Mathausen. [d.]

den 14. zu pichlingen. [d.]

den 15. zu Grauenwert. [st.]

den 16. zu Wien [st.]

den 17. dem Maximiliano die hand gekuest, den nachmittag nach dem newen gebew, ist des Keysews garten. Von dannen gen Ebersdorf ist des Kaisers lusthauss: den abendt wieder gen Wien.

den 18. gen Ungerisches Altenburg.

den 19. zu Rab. [fit pugnacula 7. fl. Ranitz et Danubium.]

den 20 gen Gomorra, [Fit fl. Wage et Danub.]

den 21. gen Gran. [Fit Danub.]

den 22. zu Neuheussle. [urbs in plano sita. hic gubinatorpal d. habitat.]

den 23. zu Warburg.

den 25. zu Presburg. [Danub. fl.]

den 25. zu Wien. [Danaw fl.]

den 26. zu Hollebrun, [d.]

den 27. gen Sitzenheim zu Mittag, ist die ersste Stadt im landt zu Mehren. Den abendt zu Pudwitz. [st.]

den 28. zu Igell. [st.] So balt alss man auss dieser statt ist, kumpt man in Behinen. [+]
[+ Ruttenberg Behenischen? Broda / Chrutschen? Broda]

den 29. zu Schafles. [st.]

den 30. Bey dem Grauen von Hollach zu gast gewesen, daselbst den Oberster Schonberg gesehen, derbeneben des Oberster vonn Eckenberg, den Oberster Chatanbri, der haubtman Kintzki, den haubtman Pflug, der Ritmeister Gunterat.

Den 1. May.
Bey dem Obersten Marschalck [dem herenn von Zrautze] zu gast gewesen. Den abent bey dem herren Elemosynario. Die andere tage seind wir still gelegen, biss an den 5. do wir dem Kaiser den morgen die gandt gekuest. Den abendt zu Dlerein?.

den 6. zu Bilsen.[st.]

den 7. zu Wathausen. [s.]

den 8. zu Amberg. [st. und Schlos.]

den 9. zu Ensdorff. [Closter]

den 20. von Ensdorff getzogen, den mittag zu Altdorff
[st.], den abend zu Nurnberg. [Reichstatt.]

Den 21. dass Zeughauss gesehen, darnach das Brunnenwerck, von dannen ins goltschmits hauss gangen, daselbst ein Brunnenwerck gesehenn, welches von lauter silber und ueberguelt war, hoert dem Kaiser zu, darnach das schloss besehenn.

den 22. zu Riden. [d.]

den 23. zu Mittag zu Dinckelspul: [d.] den abend zu Elwange. [st.]

den 24. zu Mittag zu Schwaebischgemuend, [st.] den abend zu grossen Hepach. [d.]

den 25. zu Mittag zu Weil: den abendt zu Pfortzen. [st.]

den 26. zu Mittag zu Etlingen [st.] den abendt zu Baden. [st].

den 27. zum hohensteg: [d.] den abendt zu Strassburgh. [R st]

Julius.
Wie wir von Strassburg gereiset nach Paris. [st.]
den 9. abentz zu Elsaszabern. [st.]

den 10. Mittag zu Sarburgk, [st.] den abendt zu Blauckenburgh. [st.]

den 11. Mittag zu Lueneville, [st.] abent zu Nanci. [st.]

den 12. zu Mittag bey graff Hans von Salm, darselbst auch zwey Rhein Grauen gewest sampt anderen furnemen Herren, die an dess Hertzogen von Lotrige Hoff gewest. Den abendt zu Toul. [st.]

den 13. Mittag zu Aubin, [st] den abendt zu Barleduc. [st]

den 14. zu Vitri. [st.]

den 15. zu Troja. [st.]

den 16. still gelegen. den 17. Mittag zu Noyon, [st.] den abendt zu Guigni. [st.]

den 18. mittag zu Bossu, [st.] den abendt zu Paris.

Augustus.
Den 13. von Paris gen Linois, [d.] ein meil von dannen einen schoonen garten gesehen, welcher Mons 2. de Santalon gehoret, darinn viell schoner wasserwerck.

den 14. mittag zu Sangerville, abent zu Orleans.
[Orleans habet fluvium (..)oire.]

den 15. mittag zu Orleans geblieben, den nachmittag vonn dannen fur Munge und Boganci, Stet hergefahren zu wasser, la nuit a Saint Dege.

[st. und Schloss] Le 16. a Blois le midi, aldo dass Schloss besehen, uber der Schlossporten unter Ludovici 12. bildtniss haec sequentia.
          
      Anno 1465.
Hinc ubi natus erat textro Ludovicus Olympo
Sumpsit honorata regia sceptra manu.
Felix pro tali fulsit lux nuncia regis,
Gallia non alio Principe digna fuit.
        Faustus.

A l' entree du Jardin du Roy il y avoit une grande biche, prise au pais di Baden. a on Le cors la rameure, beste grosse et etrange, laquelle fut presentee a Louis 12. qui la fit mettre la. le soir a Amboise, ou Monsr. du Guast Gouverneur du Chasteau noous a fort bien receu, et avons vei la une corne de deux grandes toises et demi, a troize [quatorze] cors la rameure.

Le 17. passe un chasteau nomme Moncontour, [&] un aultre appelle Sans, est du Cardinal de Joyeuse un aultre appelle Rochecorbeau, qui est a Madame la Marquise de Guarri, un aultre Verset, a Monsr de Frenes Secretarie d'estat, et une abbaye nommee Marmotier, le midi a Fours [Tours?] apres midi passe apres de Malli chasteau de Monsr. de Sanci, le soir a Langres, dont le feu Roy a faict present a Monsr. d'Entriagues.

Le 18. passe apres d' une ville nommee Candie la nuict a Sameure, ou le Gouverneur Monsr. de Plessy Morne nous a fort bien receu, il y a quatre rivieres, le Loire, la Vienne, la Fovane, et tuve.

Le 19. a Angres [Angers st.] ou Monsr. de Pescheri est Gouberneur, nous y avons veu des moulins, dont deux chevaux peuvent nourrir par Jour 800 personnes et quate hommes en trent en une roue et peuvent nourrir par Jour 600. personnes, et une cage de bois bien garnie de fer, ou le Duc d'Anjou Roy de Sicile avoit faict emeprisoner sa femme jusques a la mort, pour les cornes qu'elle luy avoit [mis] durant son absence. il y a yci trois rivieres, le Meine le Sartre, & le Loire, le soir nous avons couche au Pont de Se. [d.]

Le 20. passe apres de Rochefort, [Schloss] sont trois chasteaux sur des rochers, au milieu d'un pre, est a Monsr. de la Tremouille, puis une ville nomme Ancenes, est du Duc d'Elleboeuf ,a nuit a valle qui est un village.

Le 21. a Nantes, Monsr. de Mussan est Gouberneur, ou il y a deux pieces [+ de canon], ou les armes du conte Palatin sont engraves [&] ces lettres H. W. P. yci au Carmes il y a la sepulture de Francois second dernier duc de Bretagne, sa premiere femme fut Marguerite de Bretaigne fille de Francois premier, et Isabeau fille du Roy d'Escosses, sa deuxiesme femme fut Marguerite de Foix Duchesse de la maison de Navarre, de laquelle il eut une fille dicte Anne, [la]que[lle] qui fut deux fois raine de France, son premier mari, fust Charles 8. le deuxiesme, Louis 12. qui mourut l'an 1523. le q. de Janvier.

Le 22. apres midi parti de Nantes, et le soir a l'Abbregiment entier.

Le 23. a la Greve le midi, le soir a Monseul.

Le 24. passela riviere de Peron, et [puis] deux lieux sur la rivere de Maran, le midi a Maran, le soir a la Rochelle.

Le 25. midi a Lunesi, le soir a Niort ou on est de la Religion, est une petite ville.

le 27. a S. Maxent le nidi est une ville aussy de la Religion. le soir a Poictiers.

Le 28. a l'Eglise de N. Dame, dessous l'Image de Constantim M. Empereur.
Quam Constant. pietas erexerat olim. Anno 340.
Ast hostis rabeis straverat effigei. 1562.
Restituit veteres cupiens imitarier hujus
Vidus eques templi coenobiarcha pig. 1592.

Le 29. a Scobignon, le soir a Blanc en Berri.

Le 30. midi a Mele, le soir a Bourdon.

Le 31. midi a Mele, le soir a Bourges ou nous avons veu l'Egllise S. Estienne et la grosse tour.

          
Mars.
Le 15. de Bourges le midi a Villeroy, le soir au pont Charge.

le 16. midi a Callietre, le soir au pont Lusse.

Le 17. a Molin ville capitale de Bourbon le soir a Varenne.

Le 18. a Palise, le soir a Paccodire.

Le 19. middi a Rouane, le soir a soir a la Chapelle.

Le 20. a la Brelle le midi, le soir a Lionon veu deux forts, l'un s'appelle le fort S. Jean, puis la maisoon du Roy laquelle est aupres de l'Eglise principale S. Jean, aussy la maison de Capponi et de Bonvisii ou il y a une fort belle fonteine, & aupres la sepulture de deux amans.
[Lioon fit duos fluvios Le Rhosne la some]

Le vingtemquiesme de Lion, la nuict a Audance.

Le 27. passe devant Tournon universite et Valance, villes, et deux Chasteaux appelle, l'un Rochemeure appart. a Mons. de Joyeuse, et Ler de Mons, le Connestable, au milieu du Rhosne. Le soir a Avignon, ou nous avons veu le Chasteau du Pape.

Le 29. d'Avignon le midi a Orgon ville de Monsr de Guise le soir a Lancon.

Le 30. midi a Aix, ville capitale de Provence, le soir a Marseille.

Le 31. noous avons veu les Isles.

D'Avril.
Le 1. partis de Marseille, la nuict a Solon.

Le 2. d'Auril en Augnon [st.]

Le 3. partis d'Augnon le midi au pont du Gard, sont trois ponts l'un sur l'autre, le soir a Nismes, ou nous avons veu les arenes, le capitole, la tour et porte de Romains.

Le 5. midi a la Beguide blanche, le soir a Mompelier.

Le 7. a Nismes. Le 14. de Nismes.

1599 Conziesme
          
d'Aoust
Parti de Paris, le disner a Pontoise, petite ville appartient au Baron de Pontoise, le soir a Magni.

Le 12. midi a Escuy, le soir a Rouan.

Le 14. de Rouan midi a Tote, le soir a Diepe, voyla le port, et la grande Eglise, a une lieu de la est un bourg deriere une montagne, qui s'appelle Arques ou la bataille fut donnee et Monsr. de Mayne mis en route.

Le 15. retourne par le mesme chemin a Rouan. Voila la tour de nostre Dame, le logis du Roy pres de 5. on. et les tripots du Roy, le fort S. Catharine le palais et la bourse, le Gouberneur du lieu est Monsr. l'Admiral.

Le 17. de Rouan, le midi a Poussiere, le soir a Neufchastel.

Le 18. midi au Pois, c'est un chasteau et une petite ville et appartient a Monsr. de Kreki gendre de M. des Diguires, le soir a Amiens, voila la tour et l'eglise de N. Dame , qu'on estime la plus belle de toute la France, la teste S. Jean. et la citadelle, le Gouberneur est M. le conte S. Paul.

Le 20. alle par basteau vers Abbeville qu'est une petite ville, voila les deux tours a la grande Eglise.

Le 21. midi a Monstreul, petite ville forte, il y a une cilladelle, le Gouberneur s'appelle Monsr. de Migni. le soir a Boulogne, qu'est une petite ville sur une montagne, au pie de laquelle il y a un port de mer, le Gouverneur s'appelle Monsr. de Campagnole.

Le 22. midi a Calais qu'est un port de mer, il y a une cittadelle, le Gouberneur s'appelle Monsr.de [+ Fick]

Le 23. nous nous sommes embarques et le 24. a midi sommes arrivez [trois heures du matin nous arrivames / et partis a minuit] a Doverren en Angleterre, le soir a Canterbrey, voila la grande Eglise qu'on estime la plus belle de toute l'Angleterre, et les sepultures du Roy Henry 4. et de sa femme qui estat fille de Navarre. puis d'Edouart le noir Prince tue a la bataille de Poictiers des Cardinaulx di Chastillon et de Polo, et beaucoup autres Seigneurs et gentilshommes. [+ come aussi de Thomas Aquin. Et la chaine de l' Euosque'. Et les reliques.]

Le 25. midi a Sedinborn, la nuict a Rochestre.

Le 26. midi a Deffort, le soir a Londres.

Le 29. nous sommes party de Londres pour aller a Nonschits maison Royale ou nous avons veu le Jardin qui est tresbeau, oultre cela il y a deux ou trois belles fontaines, aussy le Jardin Mive, dans lequel il y a des tres belles Piramides. Ceste maison est situee dans une closture, pleine des dains, de n'y a aucune aultre maison aupres, c'est pourquoy les Seigneur et Gentilshommes de la court y font apporter leur pavillons et tentes, et les planter de vant la dicte maison, quil semble proprement un camp de bataille. [a Nonschitz nous avons baise les mains de la Roine, et auons desne a la chambre de Milford Chambellan, ou sa Mte nous fit traite] De la nous sommes alle disner en une bourgarde a deux lieux de Hamptoncourt maison Royale, laquelle nous allasmes veoir apres disner, c'est la plus belle, la plus grande et magnifique maison de toute l'Anglelterre, il y a deux courts en l' une desquels voyer une belle fontaine hault eslevee, qui rendre [e] l'eau de toutes parts mouyllant tous ceux qui s'en approchent de pres.
Il y a cinq chambres Royales chacune desquelles a sa chambre de presence, ornee des belles tapisseries, et une chaise d'oree, avec des beaux coussins de toile d'or richement omrees?, et un tabit de table de mesme parure. Toutes ces choses sont urayment magnifiques et royales, mais ce n'est rien au pris de la chambre que on appelle le Paradis, car on y voit les plus sumptueuses et mieux faictes tapisseries qu'il est possible de veoir, la couverture de table et les coussins, qui font sur la chair Royale en fond de velours cramoysi sont brodees des belles grosses perles fines, le [ ciel ou voile] tout de mesme de fond en cime, au milieu duquel entre beaucaup des pierres precieuses accommdees sur le bord des feuilles d' une belle rose, il y a au centre e'icelle un beau diamant de la valeur de cinq cens Pfundt Sterlings, en la mesme chambre on voit un Jeu des echets d'yvoir, les personages estans repraentees fort au naturel, il y a aussy un tricquetrack de bois qui sente le [musique.] Davantage il y a des belles galleries dedans lesquelles on voit des pourtraicts et tableaus, entre autres celuy d'Eduard 6. a age de deux ans. Aussi la passion faicte de nacque de perle, il y a aussy de voir, Finalement la chapelle de la Royne. le soir [un village]
le lendemain midi a Winsor maison Royale, ou nous avons veu la chapelle en laquelle la Royne faict les chevaliers de l'ordre de la garretiere, et les enseignes des chevaliers avec leurs armories et espees, puis en une autre chapelle une sepulture, que la Royne faict faire pour son Pere Henri huictiesme et pour elle, la dicte sepulture est faicte de marbre et de cuyure?, et n'est pas encores achevee. De la nous sommes alles sur le chasteau ou nous avons veu une tapisserie que le premier Chrestien [+ entre les Rois de France] auoit eu, puis le lict pue le Roy Henry 8.me avoit eu en France, aussy la chambre dt le lict dans lequel le Roy Edouart 6. fut ne, puis aussy la chambre de la Royne et la chambre de presence, autre cela une licorne, un oiseau qu'on appelle du paradis et un coussin que la Roine a faict en [prison.] Il y a aussi un petit chasteau sur un costau, que Jules Caesar a faict faire. Ony voit aussy la cuisine Royale, laquelle est si grande comme une sale, et il y a sept ou huict cheminees la dedans. Au zeste le chasteau est en une lieu fort plaisant, en des forests, auquels il y a des belles pleines ou on voit une grande trouppe des dains. le soir a Wickambourg.

Le 31. midi a Oxefurt, apres disner nous sommes alles a [+ Wotstoc / a Wotstock il ya une anciene Eglise en laguelle sont enterres plusieur Princes de Saxe qui ancienement ont conquis l'Angleterre.] qu 'est la plus ancienne maison Royale, ou la Roine de present este prisionere, le soir retourne a Oxfurt, il y a 18. colleges, dont les principaulx sont de la trinite, de nre dame et de la Royne.

September.
Le 1. parti d'Oxfurt, le soir a Wicham.

Le 2. a Debholz, maison de Mr.Cecile Secretaire de la Roine, ou il y a une
[...]

Diepholtz.
Arcem Londio 12. mill. distantem, puam adificavit Guilielmus de Buroei Thesaurarius Angliae paucos ante munsen nortuus, arcem pulcherimam duplicoqu area ornatam: In una area fons est pulcherrimus ex marmore confectus, ipsas ubi aedes intraveris, in [cochlra] fons pulcherrimus ascendit supra tertum usqu: Venies postea in coenaculum formosissimum, ubi prope portam mons maximo artificio ex omnis generis coloris lapidibus confectus est. quibus etiam adamanti Anglici et aliae geminae insertae fonticulo is eetiam duobo faunis aut alys feris hominibo ornatus est.Ex altera parte ejusdem variae sunt arbores fulys ex cornu et frustibo suis sic artificiosae factae, ut me ipsum licet tangentem folia deceperint. Incontabulato superiori factitiae aves pendent quae moveri possunt ut volare videantur. Item [tabulatum] ejusdem aulae tam artificilse paratum est, ut aqua instar pluviae densissimae ex eodem demitti possit.Etiam in eadem aula videtur velum, quo sella regia est ornata, ubi vide insignia reginae ejusdemqu matris ex rubris et albis rosis artificiofissima facia. Ibidemqu inter fenestraas vide magnas et proceras arbores, varios fructus ferentes.
In fenestris item insignia regum et praecipuorum Germaniae et Italiae principum depicta. Ic coenaculo propinquo caminum videre licet, ubi duo epuites Eduardi 6. concurrentes depicti videntur. In summitate parietis depictae sunt praecipuae civitates mundi cum habitu incolarum, 12. item primi Caesares Romani usqu ad Dominibus, ubi in fenestris proximis ipsorum insignia, globus item colestis, multis in conclavibo depicti sunt septemviri impery alyqu magnates, item insignia eorum omniaqu suas peculiares habent tapetes.
Item in quodam conclavi tesserarum ludus in quo orbiculi ex argento, ludus item schaccorum, cujus tesserae personis vivos repraesentantibus constabant: In ingimo conclavi ist ein wassergesell von bley 100 fuder continens ad usum familiae. Tectum ut pluribo in arcibo Angliae ex plumbo factum [], ita ut supra illud deambulari possit. Ad portam ubi ex arce itur in hortum a dextris scriptum est:
Facto prudentia major:
Ad sinistram Genealogia dni? aedium Est in horto aedificium quoddam parbum ubi per 24. schalas ascenditr, ibi est piscina et in dextro angulo salit fonticulus, qui [quatuor] molas [il y a deux petits moulins a vent, et deux d'eux.] a vent aliasqu duas ab aqua agitat: In sinistro etiam fonticulus et pistrinum est, et ibi templu in cujus turri sunt campanae, quae saliente aqua sonant. Subter illud aedifcium tabula est ex lydio lapide longa 12 1/2 spitamus, lata 6.et crassa 4. digies.

Nonschitz.
[+ ou nous auons baise les mains de sa Mtte.]
Prope piramidem mensa est asrmorea contecta arcu, in fronte enus arcus haes scripta.
Nil inpudicum pudicitate dea
Nil turpe suadet sceleris vindicta
Sed mala mens malus animo.
In parte dextra.
Impuri Fontis
Imclari zivuli.
Ingratae mentis
Impuri oculi.
Inparte umbra
Languenti sedes
Noli in umbra umbratilis esse.
Nec sint sedenti serpentis sculi.


Cantabrigia.
In collegio regali bibliotheca monstratur ubi liber psalmorum quatuor spithamus longus et tries latus, quatuor ibi sunt distincta conclavia, in ultima haec ad tabulam.
Olim grata fuit titulis urbs inclita multis
Vicino a fuvio nomine nomen habet.
Saxones hanc belli deturbavere procellis
Sed nova pro veteri non proculinde sita est.
Quam felix Monachus Segeberti jussa secutus
Artibus illustrem reddidit atqu scholis
Haec ego perquirens gentis monumenta Britannae
Asserui in laudem Granta desertatua.
Johannes Ledgatus Galleredi Chameri discipulus affiirmare tempore Gungunty, qui regnavit anno mundi 4317. Cantium ducem, Regis Hispaniae filium partulini Regis Hiberny fratrem Cantabregem super Cantam fluvium muro cinctam turriqu defensam condidisse, Ao. munde 4348. a transmigratione Babilonis Ao 230. et ante Christum 539. eumqu Athenis edoctum inde Philosophos advocasse et Cantabrigiae dacendi gratia collocasse, dt ab his initys ad suam Bedae et Alfredi menoriam, scholae & universitatis momine Catabrigiam coaruisse.
Haec ex libro Joannis Cari de antiquitate Cantabrigiae.
Cambdenus refert academiam Catabrigiensem fundatam esse a Cantabro Hispano Ao ante Christum 375. a seberto aurientalium Amgloum rege anno post Christum 630. restitutam. Conspiciuntur ibi etiam rudera arcis fortissimae a Danis destructae.

Wostoc.
Arx est antiquissima ex parte, pars vero recentior, ibi capella est, qua olim Judaei usi dicentur, ideoqu formam circularem habet, sed nunc ampliatum, [ubi vidi sepulchra ducum Saxoniae] Cubiculum ibi est, ubi moderna Regina captiva ad fenestram ligneam sequentes versus Angicos ab ipsa compositos scripsit carbone [creta.]
Huic adjacet casula seu rudera, case ubi dicitur habitasse Rosamunda Cliffordia concubina regis Angliae Henrici 2. Ex hac domo usqu ad arcem clandestinaae dicuntur esse fossae seu cuniculi, ut eam Rex clam uxore sua inviserer posset. Ibidem fons est abundans aqua, si ullo alius, ita ut (:meo judicio) facillime molarem rotam agitare passet, et aditum subterraneum habuit, per quem solus Rexeam visitabat, Ea sepulta est in oppido Gostow. 3. istins mill cum hoc Epitaphio referente Gambdemo.
Hic jacet in tomba Rosamundi non Rosamunda
Non redolet sed olet quod redolere solet.

Oxonium.
In collegio quod movum sive Mariae vocant Bibliotheca est pulcherrima libriqu pulcherrimi in pergamento manuscripti, inter alios Trogus Pomp: de rebus gestis Rom sumt in eodem duo pulcherrimi globi coelestis et terrestris, in quo posteriori nem Draci et Thomae Candisch designantes. [In hac urbi sunt 18 collegia.]

Winsor
In arce Winsor equites emeriti qui in juventute egregiam navarumt in operam beneficil Reginae aluntur certoqu habituinduti sunt, quotidiequ bis templum ingredi coguntur in habbitu suo: quod templum satis pulchrum est et magrificuma; idqu Eduardus exstruxit in honorem beatae Mariae et Gelrgy Cappadocis: magnificentius reddidit Eduardus 4. Hic teste Gambdeno Eduardus 3. ordinem instituet Ao. 1350.
Hic sepultus est Eduardis 4. cum conjuge sua. Ivi conspicitur etiam monumentum Eduardi fily Limcolinae comitis ex marmore nigro et albo, inscriptio ejus talis est.
Nobilissimo Dno Eduardo filio Lincolnae comiti Clintoriae et Sareae Baroni, militi Ordinis Periscelidis, & summo Angliae Admiralio cum post praeclaram operam 4. Continua serie illustrissimis Principibo Henrico, Eduardo Mariae et Elizabethae tam consilio quam armis et domi et foris terra mariqu fideliter navatam placide fato functus est, carissimo marito amantissim conjux Elizabetha comitis Kildariensis filia pia perpetuaequ memoriae ergo moerens posuit.
Obyt 16. January. Ao. 1584.
Suspendis est ibi tapes Gallis ademptus in quo textus est Rex Angelus, item tria lilia Gallorum insigria, cui hi in texti versibus Galleci:
Pour plus tenir foy chrestienne estable
Et de peruers damner l'iniquite
Le Roy Clollis? ehlen connestable
On fault conseil de saincte trinite
Pour auencer lapuelle elecuion
Et Sainct Angle par digne affection
Au lieu qu'on dict Loyenal dscendu
Acest Hermite deuni thresor
Pour Roy Clouys convertir liu tendu
Sur champ d'Azur ces trois foeure de lils d'or
Disant amis ce presenthohrable
Signifie foye et equite.
Clouys sera victoriel notable
Par ces armes d'excellent dignite
A saincte Clotte en fera mention
Femme Clouis qui par deuotion
Voire te vient lors emontre elle respend des or
Prendre Clouys quand a Dieu plaict ainsi
Sur le champ d' azur ces trois fleurs de lils d'or
L'escu fit faire de ce presant semblable,
Et fust au Roy parelle presente
Qui au nom de Dieo le receut acceptable
Dont fust Candar Roy de Gothia many
Loyenval de ce fondation.
Puis print a Reme regeneration
Lors tramist Dieu Lampole a sainct Reni
Dont fust sacre fi sont les hoirs encore
Qui porte et portent comme luy
Sur champ d' Azur ces trois fleurs de lils d'or.
Cubiculum Regnae in quo tabula quam dicunt coralleam, aly marmoream ut ego putavi, in cujus lateribus quatuor erant dicta: 1. Industriae cimes praemium. 2.Virtutis lauc actio. 3. Regina rerum sapeintia. 4. Omnis Sapientia a Deo.
Alia item duo conclavia seculis superius ornata.
In tempol (de quo et antea) primum est ordo instituty aureae periscilidis siu Gartery, qui sinistram tibiam coerulea Periscelide aureis liter Gall: inscripta, Honi soit qui ma y pense, stringunt ab Eduordo 3. Angliae Rege.
In hujus templi choro videbis insignia equitum periscelidis orichalco inscripta inter quos nota.
Henrici 2.Roy de Franceri. iour de Iuin l'an 1551.
Charles 9 Roy de France l'an 1564.
Phippius Dei gratia Rex Castiliae, Granatae, Archidux Austriae Ao 1506.
Jean Roy de Portugal
Alphonsts Rex Portugaliae
Charles par la grace de Dieu Archiduc d'Autryche Price des Espagnes.
Fridericus 2. Daniae Rex 1578.
Emanuel Philibery Duc de Savoye.
Ao 1551
Jacobus 5. Rex Scotiae Ao 1535.
Maximilianus Rom. Rex semter Aug.
Carolus 5. divina favente clementia electus Roomanorum Imperatorum Imperator semper Augustus, Rex Germaniae, Castiliae, Aragonae, Legionis, Vtriusqu Siciliae, Hierusalem, Humgariae, Dalmatiae, Croatiae, Navarrae, Grantae, Valerciae, Hispalis, Toleti, Sardiniae, Corclubae, Murciae, Gienniae. Algarbi, Algicircae, Gebaltaris, Insularum Balearum Lanariae, indiarum terrae firmae, maris Oceani, Archidux Austriae, Dux Burgundiae, Dux Burgundiae, Lotharingiae, Brabantiae, Lemburgiae, Luxemburgae, Roselllibrae, Cerotaniae, Namariti et Zutphaniae, Landgravius Alsaciae, Marchid Burgoniae, Oristani, Goreani, Princeps Suexiae, Asturiae, Bominus Frisiae, Sclavoniae, Portus Naoniae, Biscaiae, Molinae, Salinartae, Tripoliae et Mechliniae, Dominator in Asia & Africa.
Ferdinantus D. G. Princeps et infans Hispaniarum, Archidux Austriae, dux Burgundiae.
Arene le duc Mommoranci pair et connestable de France 1535.
Guidas Vbaldus dux Vrbiny Montisferreti.
Princeps Adolff Hoir de Noywege duc de Sleswic Holstein Ao. 1560.
Jean Casimir conte Palatin 1578.
His annumerari etiam dicuntur Rudolphus 2. Imp: Semp. Aug. Henricus 3. Gallorum Rex, quamvis eorum insignia et nomina hic non inveniantur.
In hac arce Edoardus 3 Joannem Regem uno eodemqu temore captivos detinuit.
In hoc opp. colligium est Etonia dictune exstrucum ab Henrico 6.

Arx Regia decta
Grinwitz.
Haec arx est amoeno in, oco sita de ipsum frumen Tamesin, in qua Regina tota aestate solet commorari, et dicitur hanc omnibus regys gallis anterferre, quia in eadem nata est: Deinde etiam ob amoenitatem loci, siquidem ex altera parte habet vivarium in quo nemus elegans nec non collis, cui superstructa specula seu turris millefleur dicta, cui tectum est plumbeum, in quo tecto hoc incisum distichon.
Lusiadum princeps duris Antonius armis Reginae petyt sorte coactus opem.
Incisum boc distichom dicitur ab ipsomet Antonio Lusiadum rege, cum in Anplia plsus ab Hispano degeret [, et conscriptum fuisse]
Ex alero latere habet fluidum Tamesin dictum, quo omnes naves Londinum ducuntur, ultra flumen planties amoenissima. Ipsa conclavia nihil habent praeter tapetes satis pretiosos, & unum horologium artificiosissimum cimbalis quascunqi melodias Regina templum ingrediente et regrediente ex eo canens seu sonans. Hoc in modum Argentinensis horology celebris Germaniae ab eodem artifice Argentinae fabricatum est, Arfentinaqu eo translatum. In arcem est fons, pui habet canales plumbeos inter strata terra latentes quibus aqua artificiosissime turbam lastantem Gyneceumqu conspergere solent.
[...]

Whithal, est regia arx prope templum Westmunster dictum in suburbio occidentalis partis urbis ipsi flumini juncta, cui ex altera parte vivarium conjunctum.
Un primo arcis coenaculo videtur effigies Avilae Regis Hunnorum.
Conventum Maximiliani Imperat: & Henrici 8. prope Turnae et Terian pugnam Papiensem et Botoniensem depictam.
Effigiem Edvardi 6. cum eet nato annos 6. ea mira est arte picta, quam opticam vel perspectivam nominant, oportet enim per laminae ferreae foramen á latere eam aspicere.
Tabulam Hispaniae.
Effigiem Annae Boloniae. Effigies Friderici 3. et Max: Imp. Henrici 8. et Ludouici XXI conventus in armis.
Foeminae aurifabric[a] jusdem conjugis qua ob formam elegantam ab Hem: 8 adamata dicitur fuisse.
Rosamundae Henrici 8 Regis
Ludovici 12. Gall. regis
Richardi 9.
Joannae pontificae Angliae.
Elisabetae de Austria Reginae Daniae.
Juli Caesaris. Don Jean. Caroli Burgundi.
Tabulam viteam passionis Christi 36. historys in vitro pictae expressam.
Ducis de Bullenbrog: effigiem.
Tabulam in qua depictus homo caecus humeris porans loripidem, cui isti versus adscripti.
Lorpidem sublatum humeris fert lumine captus
Et socy haec oculos munera retribuit
Quo jacet aleruter concors hic praestat uterq
Mutuat hic oculos, mutuat ille pedes.
Pugnam pictam Imp: Maximil: et Pape July 2. cum Ludovico 12. Francorum rege ad urbem Ravennam. Ap 1542. die paschatis, in qua 46. millia hominum interiere.
Tabula in qua genealogia Regis Angliae.
Navem ex auro et argento textam.
Tres sphaeras, inens speculum.

3. In 3. cubiculo notabis.
Pugnam pictam in Pedemontio ad Zerezellas, obsidionem montensem, Versus hos ad symphoniam adscriptas leges.
Ao. Dom. 1555.
Anglica nunc plaudas, plaudas et Hybernica proles
Orphae vays organa tange modis.
Regina laudes celeres modo ferto per auras
Subvertit nostras altra Maria lues.
Infertus.
Reginae virtus vivit post fata Mariae
Ad latus.
Expectata venisti
Certum est augurium
Super aethera nota
Effigiem Henrici 8.
Effigiem Reginae Elisabethae eo habitu quo ingreditur parlamentum cui ipsa praeest, siquidem sua manu auditorium parlamenti aperit et occludit ingrediendo et egrediendo.
Syphoniam ex testis Vinonum
Pictura artificiosissima, qua cerasa poma et aly fructo ad vivum representantur.
Philipi Archiducis Austriae
              } effigies
Caroli 8. Regis Francorum
Pulpitum ex testis Vinonum.
Princeps Auraici Efigiem.
Henrici 2. Franc: Reg: filiae, nuptae Hispaniae Regi Philippo, effigies.
Isabellae de Castilia et aliorum ducum et princitum effigies.
Item Eduardi 6 cum esset duorum annorum his versibus:
Parvule patrissa patriae virtutis et haeres
Esto, nihil majus maximo orbis habet.
Gnatum vix possunt coelum et natura dedisse
Huiuc? quam patris virtus honoret honos.
Aequaro tantum tanti tu facta parentis
Vota horum vix quo progrediantur hut?.
Vincto vicisti quot reges priscus adorat
Orbis, nec te qui vincere posssit erit.
Ducatum Parmensem acu textum.
Britaniam acu textam.
In tabula quadam Junonem, Palladem, Venerem, hisq adjumctam Elisabetam reginam, pictas: his subscriptis versibus:
Juno potens sceptris, et mentis acumine Pallas,
Et roseo Veneris fulget in ore decus.
Adfuit Elisabeth, Juno percussa refugit,
Obstupuit Pallas, erubuitq Venus.
Ibidem descriptionem Novae terrae duabus tabulis expressam, ad latus cartas aliquas ejusdem tenoris.
Inferius effigiem Sebastiani Cabothi Angli, fily Joannis Cabothi Vernti, militis aurati, primi inventoris terrae novae sub Henrico 7, Reg. Angliae.
Tabulam aliam qua ortus et occasus artificiosiss. adumbratur.
Huic tabulae aliam adpensam, in qua haec legebantur.
Rex quidam videns fieri regni mutatione Vocavit quatuor Philosophos ad inquirendam hicjus mutationis causam, quos cum audisset, praecepit ut uniuscujusq sententia in civitatis porta sciberetur:
Primus Philosopus dixit.
Potentia     Justitia      Regnu      Lege
Dies   } est { Nox   } ideo { Terra } ê sine { via
Fuga       Pugna       Regnu      honore
Secundus Philosophus dixit.
Unus    Duo       Regnu      Veritate
Amico } ê { Inimico }ideo { Regnu } ê sine { Fidelitate
Malum    Bonam      Terra      Pietate.
Tertius Philosophus dixit.
Voluntas    Consiliario     terra malé gubernate.
Denario } ê { Judex    } Ideo { terra malé regitur.
Deus      Mortus        Regnum ê plinum peccatoribus.
Quartus Philosophus dixit.
Ratio habet licentia       Regnum vult êe sine noie.
Redituariq ê fur     } ideo { Terra ê sine pecunia.
Cornicula vult êe aquila.     Nulla ê discretio in patria.
His dictis Philosophorum addita erant infertius haec verba:
Cum gratia referri non potest quanta debetur, habenda tamen est, quantam maximam animq noster capere possit.
Ex Phillip. 2.
Si in eos quos speramus nobis profuturos non dubitamq officia conferre, quales in eos esse debemq qui jam profuerint.
Videbis ibi etiam prudentiam justitiam magnanimitatem et temperatntiam descriptam.
Item in cubiculo ibi etiam videtur symphonia in qua ludere possunt duo.
Videhis ibi etiam doctorum virorum effigies, utpote Wolfgangi Musculi, Vldarici Zwingly, Rodolphi Gualteri, Simonis Grinaei, Conradi Pelicani, Theodori Bidliandri, [Jois Occolunpady] Henrici Bullingeri, Petri Martiris, Vermely cum infrascriptis versibus.
In coenaculo Reginae nil nisi sedile Reginae pulvinaribus sericis stratum videtur.
In alio conclavi monstratur effigies Henrici 7. & 8. e' regione effigies uxorum eorum.
Ibidem exhibebatur nobis rupes mira arte fabricata, gemmis varys splenders, in qua cellulae distinctae erant pro habitatione Eremidharum? sicuti talia Angli praerae teris nationibus facile et artificiose norunt? sculpere.
In alia tabula depicta erat graecana mulier quam mercator Londinensis ex Graecia adduxit.
Ibidem alio effigies Antony Framosteny cujus ossa Helmstady, ubi post mortem á medicis anatomica administratione ob monstrosam magnitudinem hominis sceleton exstructum existit.
Lectus Indicus ex serico albo varysq coloribus insignis.
Cistulae et capsulae plurimae ex testis unionum; inter alias maxima quaedam.
Huic arci adhaerent amoenissimmi horti in quorum altero fons subterranij canalibus (sicuti tales plures videntur in Angliae arcibus) inopinate astantes aqua conspergit et madefacit.
Huic quoq arci conclave aliud cohaeret quod regina dicitur in honorem adventus Ducis Alansony fratris Regis Galliae Henrici 3. exstruxisse, illud autem potius coreis ducendis accommodatum, quam alicui aly commodo.
In area hujus arcis parieti seu muro appersa est costa et vertebra balenae stupendae magnitudis.
Huic arci proximum est vivarium, ubi plurimi videntur cervi.
Vide praeterea tabulis tribus depictas obsessionem insulae Meditensis, in quarum una est depictum stratagema fuit classicum ita repraesentatur ut ipsa nox tibi et in ea ostendatur.
Juxta illas tabulas est effigies ipsius gubernatoris Meditensis qui Hispano fuit et suum muno tempore obsessionis feliciter administravit.
Ipidem pugnam depictam Affabiae contra Saxoniae ducem, in qua ipse captus Saxo.
Vidimus bibliothecam Reginae, in qua inter libros alios, tum graecos , tum latimos, tum profanos tunc facros, Libellus manuscripto á Regina gallicus in membrana in 16. compacto serico et uniquibus exornatus conspicitur quem suo patri dedicavit, cui talis inscriptis:
A treshant, trespuissant et redouste prince Henri VIII. de ce nom Roy d'Angleterre de France dt d'Irlande defenseur de la foy, Elisabeth sa tres humble fille red salut et deue obeissance.
Manus haec tam elegans ut exercitatum pingendis literis facile superet, Item ibidem aly duo libri ab Anglicus é latino ab ipsa translatus, alter gallicus.
In proximo conclavi tabula est in qua depict regio montosa.
Ibi etiam ambulacrum angustum et oblongum, in quo videntur varia variorum equitum emblemata in scutis picta, quae singulis annis in festo recordationes Reginae Elisabethae arca ferias nativitatis celebrantur.

Domus Regia Hamptoncourt.
Regia est vere regia et magnificentissima á Cardinale Thoma Volseo é Coeto lapide exstructa, ab Henrico aucta et perfecta, qua quinq peramplas areas aedificys cinctas concludit.
In primo ingressu areae ampissima deinde porta cui ex anteriori facie appositae duae medy corporis effigies ex marmore, altera Tajani, altera vero Hadriani Imperatoris, una cum insignibo Reginae et ae eito ehus symbolo. Dieu est mon droict
In altera facie horologium praestantissima post ingressum alia area, et quidem amplior priori, strata lapide quadrato, in cujus medio fons elegans, columnis albis marmoreis constans in sumitate ejus corona,[in] cujus apice justitia stat marmorea quae ut et corona deaurata est.
Arx haec in ingenti sita planitie, tantae magnitudinis, qualis vix ulla in Anglia.
Circum eam vivarium.
Hic conspicitur area hac scil: statua medy corporis July Caesaris et Vitelli Imperatoris ex marmore ut et duae aliae vitriato picto. Ex hac area ad sinistra ascendo altrium ingens vodetur, cujus superius pavimentum arcuatum ex ligno Irlandico, cui nulle arance eadhaerere possunt, ob antipatiam quandam, sicuti de terra Irlandica dicitur, quod ibi multi bufones reperiantur, et si qui interdum eo'asportantur, statim moriuntur:
Item si gleba terrae illiq in Angliam afferaatur et bufo ei
superponatur, itidem moritur.
In alio conclavi hoc dictum camino adscriptum aureis literis.
Vivat Regina Elisabetha in qua fons prudentiae.
Videtur et ibi Capella Reginae pulcherrima.
Cubiculum Reginae tapetibus pretiosissimis (ut et alia omnia) circundatum speculum ingens et elegantissimum figuris albis marmoreis circum circa exornatum.
Lectum Annae Beloniae cujus coelum artificiosissime ipsamet dicitur texuisse ex auro serico.
Marci Curty figura elegantissima ex haurischalco.
Inter parvam quandam picturam hoc legitur,
Nil pace commodius ac sanctius; tamen cum pacem servare non possumus, bellum suscipiendum, sed pax semper servanda.
In tabula pugna Paviensis ad vivum depicta.
Efigies Reginae Scotiae, quae jussu modernae reginae Elisabethae decollata est.
Effigies ipsius matris,
Item videtur obedientiae typus cum his verbis:
Omnia virtutum optima obedientia.
Passio tota Christi in testis unionum ex pressa seu sculpta.
Ferdinandus filius regis Hispaniae ad vivum depictus.
Effigies Henrici 8. regis Angliae patris modernae reginae Elisabethae.
Lectus Annae Beloniae, matris Elisabethiae cum ornatu regio.
Lectus in quo natus ê Eduardus 6. Rex Angiae, in quo mortua est etiam mater in ipso partu.
Conspicitur etiam imago amoris quae virginem formosam refert, supra cuhus caput scriptum erat:
Imago amoris, in fronte procul et prope in pectore mors et vita, in pedibus byems et aestas, In hac poesi figurantq proprietates amoris.
Biblia reginae latina in rubra holoserico compacta.
Spaera annularis elegantissima.
Globus terrestris.
Instrumenta Musica varia.
Ubi videtur praeterea capsula quaedam, quam vulgo vocant ei Cabinet, cui haec literis erant adscriptae.
De facon suis loyal, superius paululum
A bon maistre seruice, Inferius a bon seruice liyer, medio si tu as maistre sert le bien, et bien lui guarde le sien, quoi qu'il face sois humble deuamt sa face.
Hortus elegantissimus et plane regius, cui adjacet vivarium.
Camera Paradisi. haec ob contenta in ea nomen hoc habet, paradisum suquidem dixeris terrestrem dim ab objectis visus tuus afficitur, omnia siquidem gemmis et unionibo splendent, praecipue coelu quod ab Henr. 8. curatum ê fieri, sub quo Regina dum adest (: adesse autem ut accepi raro ibi solet, et vix ut dicunt 10. an: aut 7. ad minimum eo ire solet, non quidem ob longiorem distantiam ab ipsa urbe Londino, cum tantum 10. anglicis mill. distet, sed potius ob luxum evitantum) dum majestati indulget sedere solet. Habet primo intexta insignia Angliae (qua sunt ut patet tria lilia ratione ea quae Galliae, et tres leones eaqu Angliae regnum spectat) ex auro et argenta; circa illa aurea periscelis intextra est (:quod est insigne, antea dictum ordinis equitum divi Georgy:) quibo insignibus tum ipsi periscelidi gemmae pretiosissimae et uniones insertae sunt copiosae, inter quas mirabe adamantem inferiori parti periscelidis insertum, aestimatum pretio 500 librarum Anglicarum, quae summa efficit gallicos coronatos 1666. cum 1/2 partis, nostra computatione germanica ferme 2315. daleros Imperial: Item unionem maximi valores, deinde totum illud coelum unionibus ornatum est. Mirare praeterea tapetem mensae impositum latitudine 12. longitudine 28. spitamar, totum consitum quasi unionibo pretiosissimis.
Huic adde miranda pulvinaria: Item sellam regiam haud ornatu secundam.
Ludus tesserarum et calculorum ex auro et Ebenno ligno.
Clepsidram videbis ibidem unionibo micante, nec non speculum [ex unionibus?] visorios radios dissipans:
Item ludus latrunculorum paratus miro artificio.
Conclave illud in superiore parte, est astronomico quasi opere absolutum et cöoperatum.
Est et ibidem Bibliotheca Reginae, ea tamen minus regia in qua reservantur Herici 8. pileus, cornu venatorium aureum, item scipio ex unicornu, item caputium quo falconum capita dum eos venari docent includunt. His autem maxime dicunt Henricum 8. deleclatum fuisse, et in primis venationi. Alia praeterea ibi videntur, [ut ornamentus vary Indianorum, eorundemq aueus, et aliam, jusmodi armor genera.]

[...]

Weestmünster
Ubi vide Richardi secundi Regis Angliae cum uxore quae fuit filia Wenceslai Bohemorum regis ex cupro deaurato opus pulcherrimum.
Eduardi 3. Regis Angliae qui Galliam occupavit ex cupro quoq deaurato, ad sepulchrum conspicitur ipsius ensis magnitudinis ingentis cum quo Galliam occupasse dictur.
Hunc sequitur uxoris sepulchrum quae fuit ex familia comitum ab Hanau ex marmore nigro cui superiacet ipsius figura ex marmore albo.
Filia Eduardi quarti ex aurichalco.
Sepulchrum Eduardi Sancti ultimi Regis Saxonum Orientalumex opere Mosaico costructum ex diversis coloribo marmorum, opus sumpuosissimum, ejus epitaphium sic habet:
       Omnibus insignis virtutum laudibo Heros
Samcto Eduardus confessor Rex venerando.
  Quinto die Jan. mortuo 1065
Henrici quinti ex marmore nigro cui, superjacet ipsius figura alba, sed caput non adest, quia est furto ablatum, nam dicitur fuisse argenteum de deauratum.
Sepulchrum Heleonore, uxoris Eduardi primi, q fuit filia Heliodori Reis Hispaniae ex marmore nigro, cui superjacet ipsio figura ex cupro deaurato.
Elisabethae filiae Henrici Seprimi sepulchrum ex marmore nigro.
Henrici 3. Regis Anglorum ex diversis generiby colorum marmorum, cui superjacet ipsius figura ex cupro deaurato regnavit annos quinquaginta sex.
Eduardi primi regis Anglorum ex lapide simplici tectum nigro marmore.
Sella lapidea in qua Reges coronabantur in qua est lapis, supra quem Patriarcha Jacobus cum somniaret jacuisse dicitur eum Eduardis primus Scotis ademit.
Seberti Regis Angliae primi fundatore hujus Ecclesiae ex lapide simpici sepulchrum trium filiorum et unio filiae Regis Eduardi primi ex diversis generibo marmorum.
Sepulchrum Guilielmi de Walensia fratus uterini Henrici terty Regis Galliae ex cupro deaurato.
Joannis comitis Cornubiae sepulchrum qui fuit frater Eduardi Terty Regis Angliae ex cupro deaurato.
Eduardi terty filius et filia infantes ex marmore albo.
Francisca Ducissa Suffoltiae, filia Reginae Mariae ex marmore albo .
Dominus Rüsset filio comitis Betfordiae ex lapide picto, cui uxor hoc epitaphium conposuisse dicitur.
Mens mea crudeli laaniatur saucia morsu
Cum subit oblatae mortis imago tuae
Vere novo seres comitis tu floris ad instar
Usq cadens miseras meq meaq facis.
Quippe decor vultus, liguae, morisq probati
Tum doctrina perit, sed viget alma fides.
Cum sepulchrum spectantum venerat hoc ex tempore composuisse dicitur:
Quod licuit feci, vellem mihi plura licere.
Sepulchrum Anna Somerstensis Ducissae ex lapide picto opus elegantissimum.
Philippa txoris ducis Nemoraumsis sepulchrum ex lapide picto.
Sepuchrum Roberti Secelly secretary Regni uxioris ex mamore nigro et albo.
Franciscae comitissae sepulchrum ex lapide picto.
Altare ex marmore albo et nigro cum aurichalco opus pulcherrimum, sub quo Eduardus Sextus Rex Angliae sepultus jacet.
Capella in qua sepulta Maria Regina sine monumento.
Sepulchrum Henrici 7. cum uxore Elisabetha ex cupro deaurato et lapide lydio cancellato fundatoris hujus capellae opus magnificentissimum.
Margaretae comitissae Richmundiae, quae fuit mater Henrici Septimi ex lapide lydio et aurichalco deornato.
[...]

Le 25. de Fbris.
De Calais, du coste droit est Ardres ville Forte Fr. le soir á S. Omar en Artois ville.
Le 26. disner á Lile ville, puis passé par Illaire ville, li soir á Betune ville.
27. disner á Lile pille en Flandre le Gouverneur s'appelle Monsr le Baron de Billi passé par Menung V. le soir á Courtnay.
Le 28. á Grand metropolis Flandriae habet tres fluvios, Sceldim, Live et Lerre, qui postea extra urbem in unum concurrente, ou est la cittadelle, le dans laquelle on voit 80. pieces de fronte, et 20. de fer, qua tre bastions, el y á trois cens Espangnols et cent Walons en garnison, le Gouverneur est Augustin d'Heres Espangnol. On y voit aussy la maison et la chambre ou l' Empereur Charles le quint fut né, puis li palais qu'a esté autrefois le chasteau des C. de Flandres.
Le 29. á Anvers.
Le 30. ven la Monnoye, ou il y á de tableaux [le plus ] beaux [qu on scauroit deriser.] on perfection.

Le 1. d'Octobre.
Veu la cittadelle á cinq bastions deux vers la ville, et trois vers [..] vers la campagne, ceux qui regardent vers la ville ont avec les pieces qui sont sur les courtines 16. grand canons, le trois vers la campagne ont chacun deux cavalliers á la bouche d'icelles aux borts des cortines munis des canons et fauces portes, l'une regardant la riviere et l'autre la campagne, il y á environ 80. grandes pieces, en garnison sont ordinairement 400. Espagnols, mais devoient estre 700.
Apres nous avons ueu la tour de l'Eglise principale qui a 620 degrés, on y decroure Bergen op Zoom et Breda, Lillo et aultres places.
Apres nous avons veu a la principale place de la ville qu'on apelle Meerbruck la maison d'un Bourgeous nomé Simon Rye Portugous ou il y a des belles galeries de marbre, et un beau gardin apres.
Le 2. nous avons veu la hale qui est belle en perfection, et est pres d'une porte qui va sur la riviere, sur la pointe de laquelle est la statue de Brabon qui de l'une maintient so Epée et en l'aultre la main d'un Geant, qui aultrefois signoregia la villa d'Anvers. Les ruines du Chasteau duquel et le fossé se voyent encor la tout aupres.
Le 3. partis d'Anvers dans une fregate á 12 ramos jusq'á Willebrouck d. ou nous prismes un aultre bateau qui nous rendit le soir á Mechelen.
Le 4. nous montasmes sur la tour qui a 556 degrés.Il y a la un Parlement. Le soir á Louain. Ou nous avons veu la maison de ville, la tour, et le college. Et parlé á Mr Lipsius. Et hors de la ville une belle maison appellée Here qui est au Duc d'Arscot.
Le 5. á Brusselles. Ou nous avons veu la court de S. Altesse et de l'Infante.
[...]

Le 10. Nous avons veu aller l'Infante en son coche, et l'Archiduc á cheval avec toute sa noblesse á la messe, et puis disner ensemble au palais.
le 11. party de Brusselles á Namur ville et chasteau, assis á la Moselle.
Le 12. passé aupres de Mans St.couché á plamisole. d.
Le 13. disné en Arlon St. vesp. á Louxembourg, ubi vid. pal. et hortum com. Mansfeldiae, [qui eous loci Gubernator.]
Le 14. á Didenhouen St. Gubernaton Mr. le Baron de Willen Louxembourgois. habet fl. Mosellam.
Le 15. á Metz. V. castellum.
Le 16. á Moyenvic d. en Lorraine
Le 17. á Pfaltzbourg.
Le 18.á Strasbourg.
Fertzen?
Basell
Mompelgart
Bisancon
BurgSalinces
Champignol d.
Burg
Morbien Dorff
Nion
Bruff
Bergamo
Meiland
Closter St Ambr
Pavia
Carthosa,
la S.Aug,
Monasterio
S. Augustini
Chiaravella
Genua
Genueser mehr
Sciaravella
-Pavia
-Piatenza
Parma
Modenaw
Bolognien
Fiorenzole
-Siena
-Quirico
Radecoffoli
-Roncigli[one]
Baccano
Rom
Napoli
Fondi
Itri
Bolitria
 Terracina
Moli
Capua
Putz[ol]
Naples
Putz[ol]
lacu Averno
Puzzol
-Capoa
-Itri
-Case nove
Marina
Rom
Ronciglione
Aquapendente
Taxingola
Siena
Stagio
Florentz
Bosco
Pisa
Ligurno
Pisa
Luca
-Pistoia
-Florentz
Scarparie
Ligane
Bologne
Malalbergo
Ferrara
Mantua   
Verona
-Vicentz
-Padua
Venedigh
Padua
-Viacentz
Verona
-Halla
-Avisgi
Bolsan
Steinach
Insbruck
-Ambres
-Schwatz [d.
Rosenheim. [d.
Muehldorf
Mathausen
pichlingen
Grauenwert
Wien
Ebersdorf
-Ungerisches
Altenburg
Rab
-Gomorra
-Gran
Neuheussle
Warburg
Presburg
Hollebrun
Sitzenheim
Pudwitz
Igell
Schafles
Dlerein
Bilsen
Wathausen
Amberg
Ensdorff
Altdorff
Nurnberg
Riden
Dinckelspul
Elwange
Schwaebischgemuend
Hepach
Weil
Pfortzen
Etlingen
Baden
hohensteg
Strassburgh
Elsaszabern
Sarburgk
Blauckenburgh
Lueneville
Nanci
ToulAubin
Barleduc
Vitri
Troja
Noyon
Guigni
Bossu
Paris
Linois
Sangerville
Orleans
Munge
Boganci
Saint
Dege
Blois
Moncontour
Sans
Rochecorbeau
Verset
Marmotier
Tours
Malli,de
Langres
Candie
Sameure [
Angers
Rochefort
Ancenes
Nantes
l'Abbregiment
Greve
Monseul
Maran
Rochelle,
la Lunesi
Niort
S. Maxent
Poictiers
Scobignon
Blanc en Berri
Mele
Bourdon
Mele
Bourges
Villeroy
Charge
Callietre
Lusse
Moulin
Varenne
Palise
Paccodire
Rouane
Chapelle
Brelle
Lionon
Audance
Tournon
Valance
Rochemeure
Avignon
Orgon
Lancon
Aix
Marseille
Isles
Marseille
Solon
Auril
Augnon
Gard
Nismes
Beguide blanche
Mompelier
Nismes
Paris
Pontoise
Magni
Escuy
Rouan
Tote
Diepe
Rouan
Poussiere
Neufchastel
Pois
Amiens
Abbeville
Monstreul
Boulogne
Calais
Doverren
Canterbrey
Sedinborn
Rochestre
Deffort
Londres
Nonschits
Hamptoncourt
Winsor
Wickambourg
Oxefurt
Wotstock
Oxfurt
Wicham
Debholz
Cantabrigia
Grinwitz
Whithal
Westmunster
Calais
Ardres
S. Omar
Artois
Lile
Illaire
Betune
Lile
Courtnay
Anvers
Willebrouck
Mechelen
Louain
Here
Brusselles
Namur
Mans
plamisole
Arlon
Louxembourg
Didenhouen
Metz
Moyenvic
Pfaltzbourg
Strasbourg
Gr. Phil. von Hanauw Graff Johan von Nassauw der Juenger Graff Hans Reinhart von Hanaw D. Hertzbach Doctor Breituacker AssessorJunger vom Adell Garendorff Doctor ZieglerHeresbachy,D. RosenthallD. Christian BartTeugnagell D. Bender D. Melchior Trechsell D. Johan Peter Breittuacker
Melchior von der Wycks D. Albada Garendorff Nicolauss Colles ein bruttischer von Adell D. Ziegler D. Rosenthall
Filius Bar C. Essart de Frislandt von Kueppuvon Saradetzky
LettenheimerGraffen von Schwartzburg S. ReuberGerhard SodingGraffen von Schwartzenburg, Hans Gunter und Christan Gerhardg SodingiusComitem de SalmLudwico WitgensteinioN. Dasipoium Gerhardum Soding.Joan. Amplias Soschinius D. PlateroRaphael Lescinius de Lesgno Andreas Lescinius de LesgnoPolanoFranciscus Castilion Marches. Santelmo ritter [Pignatello]Doct. Galileo Galilea Mathematico Professore grauen von Schlick unnd Grauen zu ManssfeldtMargrauen von Burgaw Grauen von Hollach Oberster Schonberg Oberster vonn Eckenberg Oberster Chatanbri haubtman Kintzki haubtman Pflug Ritmeister Gunterat Marschalck [dem herenn von Zrautze herren Elemosynario Kaiser graff Hans von Salm Rhein Grauen Herren, die an dess Hertzogen von Lotrige Hoff Gouverneur Monsr. de Plessy Morne Milford Chambellan Mr.Cecile Secretaire Mr Lipsius
kunstreiche gemaehls in der Kirchen ad sinistram gesehen 5. Trinitatis, so 1509 gemahlet,und noch so frisch, as wan es neuwlich gemahlet. Muelhe gesehen, da 2.wasser rader 4. maehlgelind treihen newen garten und newe Statt gerumb gefahren: Hanauw der newe grosse Saall, so 17.passus breit nd 50. passus langs, ohne pfeiler,hat grosse hohe finster, oben rundt, und oben jeden noch ein rundt oval fenster gross ander gemach zum silber kamer oder sonst zu endt ein aussganck und gallerey, da man dass ringrennenen inwendich der mauren sehen wirt. newe abgeplockte Statt Bobenhausen ein Herschafft, Statt und Schloss. Ibidem ante coenam umb den inwendigsten wall gangen, hat an 4. ecken ronde tuern,und aussen noch ein wall und 3. wassergraeben zusammen hat dass Schloss viel pheren? mitten im Schloss ein solcher Viereckiger turm, unbher mit hohen feinen steinen gebew und gemachen. Fuerstlich Schloss zu Baden gesehen, alda ein schoner Saal, welcher 36. schritt lang ist, und 16. breit halben Walfisch kopff gesehen, welcher 6. Brabensche elen lang, und 2. breit, welcher 112 centner und 84. Pfundt gewiegen: Item ein rippe und ruckebut? wigt 24. pfundt auff den thurn gestigen,biss oben auff die Vier schneken, die erste treppe auss der Kirchen biss ausswechterheusse hat 321. stafelen, die ander an die 4. schneken, die wir auffgestigen 173. stafelen Spital besehe, welches gar woll gebaue, und ein tonne goldtz iarss inkommem hat, stabulum principis, ubi erat niger equus Germanicus emptus 1000 ilio, eosqu equis insidentes extra urbem comitati, vidimus munitione in suburbium, vidimus arborem erectam ,frondibus ornatam, huic impositae spartae insidebant 5. feles inclusae, et Martis bestiola infra sportam, (Erat autem haec arbor repleta pulvere bombardico) Benfelt genant, ist ei, schone festung  Bisancon, metropolis Burg. 7. m. Hic cum tardio esset portaequ nobis venientibo clausae ante urbem in parvulp pago pernoctare coacti fuimus.  auff dem Thumss thuern, welcher gleichfals, wie die kirch, von grund auff von weiss Marmell gebawet Closter St Ambr: besehen, darinne in der [kirchen] die ehen schlang so Moses auffgericht, darnach in dem Umbgang gangen, derer 2. neben ein ander, und oben auch einer breitt wie die andere, alda gar schoene gemach und muenchen [zellen] schon Kloster besehen , la Carthosa genent, in quo est pulcher rimum templum totum Marmoreum a Joh: Galeacio constructum: idem castellum Papiae construxit, et Hortum cujus muro se ultra 20. milliaria extendit, unde fertur dixisse se velle aedificare una caetta, una capella, et un [giardinetto.] Ad summum altare quod itidem marmoreum erat et pulcherrimis gemmis ornatum ab utroqu latere pendebant duo ova  genua; St: Francis: kirch gangenn, alda ein schoene Carell von lauter Marmorr, dass gewelb all uebergueldt, unter dem altar gieng man [eine] Marmelsteinen trep, hinder alda widerumb ein gewelb schoner als ss dass oberst von allerley farber, marmer und Edelgestein eingeleg Edelmans Pallast 2. Probierstern gesehenn, in forma obelisci, deren ein meiner spannen 12. hoch, unde 3. und 4, finger preitt, uund 1 1/2 spannen dick. batiren? thuern, alda stets 3. teutschen und ein waelscher soldat wacht halten, dieser hatt 365. stafflen, die leucht ist so gross, dass 30 persohnen darin stehen konne, und waren darin 30, lampen mit oell, die man dess nachts anstickt, halbeweg uber einer thuer, so auff ein galerey hinauss gieng  florenz;Domsthuern, welcher 534 staffelen hatt, darauff in dem Kuopff 13. Personen stehen konnen. Marckt besehen, dar des Cosmi Medices bildtniss von Metall auff ein pferdt gemacht, und ander mehr S. Lorentz ein biblilteck gesehen, derin ein gantzen hauffen buecher all manuscripti, unteranderen 2. so dass ein Virgilius selbst, und das ander Petrarcha geschrieben, und eins so auff bast geschriebenn corridor besehen, alda viel schoener gimaehls und bilder vo Marmerstein Pallatz, dess Hertzogen gemach brueck, welche sillae soldaten gebawet, und ist die eltest in gantz Florentz. Radecoffoli, dieses ist oben auff ein berg gelege, und ein gewaltige festung  rom; Basilicam Petri und die Newe Kirch, so Sixtus S. gebawet obiliscum so vor der Kirchen stehet In Hadriant begrebnuss, welches von Metall, und ist wie ein drenhap gemacht, umbher sein vier seulen, so das [dagh] dass drueber, auffhalten. S. Petri seul gestige. hatt 182. stafelen, stehet unden an geschrieben Pabsts Pallatium gesehn, dar ein schone Gallerei dar alle konigreiche der welt abgemalt S. Maria Trastevere, alda ein baum da oly auss geflossen, S. Maria in portico, do ein seul von Albaster oriental welche tag und nacht leuchtet, dass man dess nachts dabey lesen und schreibe kan,  Pilati hauss, das tenplum Armenicum Schola Graeca, da ein grosser runder stein vor der thuer leit, mit eins mensches Angesicht und ein grossen maul, heist Bocca di verita, do die Alte Romer Ihre weiber mit probiret stationes ubi habitatunt Christiant ab Ethnicis persecutionem passi, hinc a, altera parte est longitudo clavis Christi S. Giona[w] di Laterano ubi palatium pulcherrimis picturis auroqu ornatum, a Sixto S. inceptum, nec dum finitum, Item Aeneae columnae, Hierosolyma allatae, terra sancta repletae, quas hic Papa 12000. aureis deaurari jusset, quas in capellam pulcherrime ornatam atqu suo nomine nominata, [erexit] [Clemens 8.] In hoc templo sunt duae columnae marmoreae jerosolyma allatae, quae Christo moriente ruptae sunt,Item 4. columnae quae sustinent lapidem, qui refert longitudinem Christi et matris Mariae, Prope hoc est parvula capella, in qua est baptisterium Constant. Magni, et columna in qua gallus Petro Christum denegante sedens cantavit, unde plante ungularum ipsius in lapide videntur  S. Agnese genandt, ein runde Capell gemacht, wie S. Maria rotunda, oben mit einem fenster  Campidoglium besehen, alda viell schoener antiquiteten.  nach Putz[ol] abgerittenn, ungefehrlich 3. meil von der statt sein wur durch ein grossen ganck geritten, so unter einem hohen berg hergehet, ist ein welsche meil langs. alla grotta del cane, do der man einen hund inwarff, der alssbald umvill alss wer er todt, nam in herauss, und warff In in den lacum Agnanum, do ward er lebendig, und lieff dauon  Darnach neben dem monte olylmpo her, biss alla solfatarra, alda mitten im thall ein pfull heiss siedens wassers  ein ein schonen garten, so D. Pietro di Toledo machen lassen collationert,  sein wir ans Meer geritten alda und auff kein anderen ort dass wasser kalt, und der sandt so warm, dass es in der hand brennte  zur rechten lag der monte lag der monte [Nouvo,] welcher A. 1538. den 29. Sept. In 24. stunder gewachsen, mit ein erdbidden, hatt statt und schloss Trepergola, sampt dem grossen Lago Pucrino bedecket  A lacu Averno, al sudatorio di Frittola, da ein grewlicher dampff und hitz ist, so auss dreyen grossen locheren herauffer kompt  Bajae gefahren, alda oratorium Agrippinae besehen, darinnen ein wurtzel von ein baum die so hart wie stein  und weit auf der rechten seiten rudera cumae gesehe, uund weit im meer ein thurn, so noch von der Statt Patria do Scipio Afric. begraben, ubrig blieben  und unter eim felsen so Jul. Caes. hatt lassen durchhawen, hergefahren  denselben Villa Mameae und Alex. Caes. gewesen, do gegen uber leihen rudera Misenae urbis, und mons Misenus, unter am selben ist die Grotta Dragonaria, so Nero hat lassen machen, umb frisch wasser drin zuhaben   sicht man in dem Meer ein theill viae Appiae, so von Rom nach Misena gangen.  puzzol; Castel nuovo besehen, darin Le sala reale, welcher gantz rundt wie einn kirch, gewaltigh hoch, hatt oben ein loch da dass licht herein gehet, und nach dem meer 2. grosse fenster naus  uff die 3. eusserste bolwerck gangen, dar 13. Saxische stuck auffgestander, diesr 2. gehen geraht auff die Statt, die ander 2. bolwerck naach dem Meer.  pisa; seltzamer thieer und viel wunderbawlichs zusehen, inter alia,
Ein menschen kopf, so im meer funden, ist gantz schwartz, die haut ist zum stein worden, oben auss der hirnschalen ist Im einn rohter Corall und ein schwam gewachsen.  dass Ritterhauss die Thumkirche  Bapt. Joan. dass ort do die erd von Jerusalem hinbracht, die doten die man doen begrebt seind un 24. stunden verwesen   steht der glockturn, dieser ist rund, mit schonen peilern gezieret, sehet ganz krum, und wen man darin ist, sieht man so geraht uber sich hinauss alss wen er gar recht stunde   ist einer von des 3. thurnes so der Gr Hertzog in sein landt hatt, der erst schwebt in der lufft und steht zu Florentz auf dem alten Pallatz auff 4. seulen, der ander thurn stehet auf der erden, und ist obige zu Pisa. Der dritte ist der zu Ligurno, do wir denselben abend hinkommen sein, dieses ist noch ein newe Stadt, so der Hertzog an Meer bawen lassen, leit 10. meil von Pisa, beim monte Negro, hie komen viel Englische und Hollendische schiff an, so im Candien fahren. luca;  haben wir der Herren hauss gesehen, do viel huepscher [Gemecher,] da die Herren in wonetenn, und ein schoner sool, do man gericht in hielt, do war einn Cantzell  abend zu Luca. diese ist ein Respul. vor sich selbst, ist zimlich fest und lustig gelege, do haben wir der Herren hauss gesehen, do viel huepscher [Gemecher,] da die Herren in wonetenn, und ein schoner sool, do man gericht in hielt, do war einn Cantzell, do die Ratzherrenn einer nach dem anderen aufstiegen, wsn sie Ir vota vorbrachte, auch etzlich rohte und weisse becher, da sei wan sie einen richte wolten, mit albo und rubro calculo, nach der Romer weise in wurfen.  Edelmans Bernardi Bonvoso Pallatz gangenn, welches klein aber schon ist, hinden am hauss einen garten und schones Brunwerck, leit alla Luca nova.  florenz; auff dass Corridor gangen, do der hertzogh und die Hertzogin Ihre kunstkamern haben, do viell schoner geschir von Cristall, unter anderen hat der hertzog einen kopff von Turkas so gross wie ein grosser apffel, auch ein schreibtisch von Ebenholtz mit vielen rubin, Perlin, aqua marina, amatistes, und funff schone Smaragd tafeln eingelegt, sein auch viel schone gemahls und andere kunstreiche sacheb drein  Mantua ankommen, denselben tag dass Pallatium, die Guardarobbe besehen, alda unter anderen ein rapier un dolchen, dar 30. edelgesteine sein Im gefest, so mit deordband? von lauterem gold gemacht, Item ein sattell und zeug vonn braunem sammet, mit goldt gebordt, unnd schone edelgesteinn darauff verbremt  dem Pallatz ein schonen grossen Saall gesehen, voller rustung, spiess und haken, so viell dass man 8000. Man dauon bewehre kan  hat der hertzog noch ein Pallatium, in d hatt darinnen ein schoen hoch gewelb  hat der hertzog noch ein Pallatium, in d hatt darinnen ein schoen hoch gewelb, darin oben aus dem Ovidia der turm welchen die Riesen auf den himmel thun wolten, abgemahlet. Wan man in einer ecken stehet und so leise redet als man will, so keiner hoeren kan durben einer stehet, kan () doch d and welcher In d ecken getten ()bn ist und? das athe an die no and helt, eigentlich hoeren. venedig; Ins Kloster S. Georgio, welches gar ein schon Kloster ist  nurnberg; Zeughauss gesehen, darnach das Brunnenwerck, von dannen ins goltschmits hauss gangen, daselbst ein Brunnenwerck gesehenn  a Blois le midi, aldo dass Schloss besehen, uber der Schlossporten unter Ludovici 12. bildtniss haec sequentia  ntree du Jardin du Roy il y avoit une grande biche, prise au pais di Baden. a on Le cors la rameure, beste grosse et etrange, laquelle fut presentee a Louis 12. qui la fit mettre la  dont deux chevaux peuvent nourrir par Jour 800 personnes et quate hommes en trent en une roue et peuvent nourrir par Jour 600. personnes  le soir a Bourges ou nous avons veu l'Egllise S. Estienne et la grosse tour  Rouan. Voila la tour de nostre Dame  soir a Amiens, voila la tour et l'eglise de N. Dame , qu'on estime la plus belle de toute la France   soir a Canterbrey, voila la grande Eglise qu'on estime la plus belle de toute l'Angleterre   Nonschits maison Royale ou nous avons veu le Jardin qui est tresbeau, oultre cela il y a deux ou trois belles fontaines, aussy le Jardin Mive, dans lequel il y a des tres belles Piramides. Ceste maison est situee dans une closture, pleine des dains, de n'y a aucune aultre maison aupres  de n'y a aucune aultre maison aupres, c'est pourquoy les Seigneur et Gentilshommes de la court y font apporter leur pavillons et tentes, et les planter de vant la dicte maison, quil semble proprement un camp de bataille   Hamptoncourt maison Royale, laquelle nous allasmes veoir apres disner, c'est la plus belle, la plus grande et magnifique maison de toute l'Anglelterre, il y a deux courts en l' une desquels voyer une belle fontaine hault eslevee, qui rendre [e] l'eau de toutes parts mouyllant tous ceux qui s'en approchent de pres.  Il y a cinq chambres Royales chacune desquelles a sa chambre de presence, ornee...   Winsor maison Royale, ou nous avons veu la chapelle  le lendemain midi a Winsor maison Royale, ou nous avons veu la chapelle en laquelle la Royne faict les chevaliers de l'ordre de la garretiere, et les enseignes des chevaliers avec leurs armories et espees,  en une autre chapelle une sepulture, que   un petit chasteau sur un costau, que Jules Caesar a faict faire  Au zeste le chasteau est en une lieu fort plaisant, en des forests, auquels il y a des belles pleines ou on voit une grande trouppe des dains  nous sommes alles a [+ Wotstoc / a Wotstock il ya une anciene Eglise en laguelle sont enterres plusieur Princes de Saxe qui ancienement ont conquis l'Angleterre.] qu 'est la plus ancienne maison Royale,   retourne a Oxfurt, il y a 18. colleges, dont les principaulx sont de la trinite, de nre dame et de la Royne.   Arcem Londio 12. mill. distantem, puam adificavit Guilielmus de Buroei Thesaurarius Angliae paucos ante munsen nortuus, arcem pulcherimam duplicoqu area ornatam:   In una area fons est pulcherrimus ex marmore confectus, ipsas ubi aedes intraveris, in [cochlra] fons pulcherrimus ascendit supra tertum usqu: Venies postea in coenaculum formosissimum, ubi prope portam mons maximo artificio ex omnis generis coloris lapidibus confectus est. quibus etiam adamanti Anglici et aliae geminae insertae fonticulo is eetiam duobo faunis aut alys feris hominibo ornatus est   Incontabulato superiori factitiae aves pendent quae moveri possunt ut volare videantur   [tabulatum] ejusdem aulae tam artificilse paratum est, ut aqua instar pluviae densissimae ex eodem demitti possit  in eadem aula videtur velum, quo sella regia est ornata, ubi vide insignia reginae ejusdemqu matris ex rubris et albis rosis artificiofissima facia  insignia regum et praecipuorum Germaniae et Italiae principum depicta  In summitate parietis depictae sunt praecipuae civitates mundi cum habitu incolarum  greenwich; Deinde etiam ob amoenitatem loci, siquidem ex altera parte habet vivarium in quo nemus elegans nec non collis, cui superstructa specula seu turris millefleur dicta, cui tectum est plumbeum, in quo tecto hoc incisum distichon.  hampton c.; est vere regia et magnificentissima á Cardinale Thoma Volseo é Coeto lapide exstructa, ab Henrico aucta et perfecta, qua quinq peramplas areas aedificys cinctas concludit  In primo ingressu areae ampissima deinde porta cui ex anteriori facie appositae duae medy corporis effigies ex marmore, altera Tajani, altera vero Hadriani Imperatoris, una cum insignibo Reginae et ae eito ehus symbolo. Dieu est mon droict  In altera facie horologium praestantissima post ingressum alia area, et quidem amplior priori, strata lapide quadrato, in cujus medio fons elegans, columnis albis marmoreis constans in sumitate ejus corona,[in] cujus apice justitia stat marmorea quae ut et corona deaurata est.   Arx haec in ingenti sita planitie, tantae magnitudinis, qualis vix ulla in Anglia.
Circum eam vivarium.   Ex hac area ad sinistra ascendo altrium ingens vodetur, cujus superius pavimentum arcuatum ex ligno Irlandico, cui nulle arance eadhaerere possunt, ob antipatiam quandam, sicuti de terra Irlandica dicitur, quod ibi multi bufones reperiantur, et si qui interdum eo'asportantur, statim moriuntur  Camera Paradisi. haec ob contenta in ea nomen hoc habet, paradisum suquidem dixeris terrestrem dim ab objectis visus tuus afficitur, omnia siquidem gemmis et unionibo splendent,  Anvers;ville qu'on apelle Meerbruck la maison d'un Bourgeous nomé Simon Rye Portugous ou il y a des belles galeries de marbre  avons veu la hale qui est belle en perfection,  montasmes sur la tour qui a 556 degrés   Il y a la un Parlement  lourain;la maison de ville, la tour, et le college  

 









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  [1] ITINERARIUM Germanicum, Helueticum, Burgundium, Italicum, Ungarium, Austriacum, Bohemicum, Morauicum, Gallicum, Anglicum et Belgicum; Arnold Jobsti [..] Com. I. in Bentheim ab 1597 [..] usq ad ao. 1599. Nou., Fürstl. Bentheimisches Archiv, Rheda.
  [2] Vita Arnoldi Comitis In Bentheim ab Ao. 1554. ad Ann. 1606, ed. K. G. Döhmann, Burgsteinfurt 1903.
  [3] Gerhard Arnold Rumpius, Des Heil. Röm. Reichs uhralte hochlöbliche Graffschaft Tekelenburg, Bremen 1672, Hamburg 1935
  [4] Moritz Meier, Beschreibung der Herrschaft Rheda um 1685, Nachlaß Fürst Adolph zu Bentheim, Copy of the lost manuscript A 46.1 of the Solms-Braunfels'sches Archiev, Marienfeld 1979.
  [5] Meier's biography was probably dependent on Rump's earlier compilation.
  [6] Théodor de Bèze (1519-1605) was the biographer and successor of Calvin in Geneva where he taught since 1558. As a strict and potentially militant follower of the Calvinist doctrine he was interested in its political and ideological dissemination. He taught priests and noblemen in order to further this aim.
  [7] "...nachdem sie mit Theodor Bezo und anderen vortrefflichen Männern eine Zeitlang umgangen.", G.A.Rump, op.cit., p.119
  [8] She had governed her husband's states for a whole decade. In 1616 she divided them up into four roughly equal shares which she handed over to her four remaining sons.
  [9] H. Conrad, Bemerkungen zur Baugeschichte des Schlosses Rheda, Westfälische Zeitschrift, CXXXIX, 1986.
  [10] The second husband was Wilhelm von Wannitzky; he died in 1641; Magaretha survived him by nineteen years.
  [11] See footnote 6.
  [12] Vita Arnoldi, p. 53
  [13] Ibid., p. 64
  [14] Ibid., p. 64/65, footnote 5, Philipp de Croy who became the Count of Solre in 1592 could claim to be related to Bentheim through his second wife Anna de Renty. She was the widow of count Emanuel of Lalaing and Montigny and hence related to Adolph's great grandmother Walrave of Brederode.
  [15] After the diary had been written up in 1600 Bentheim kept it as a note-book on his journey to Kassel later in the same year. His biographers say that it was only he and not his brother Arnold who went to Kassel, a fairly relyable indication that the diary was kept by him rather than his brother who accompanied him on the journey to Italy. It is corroborated by the fact that the diary ended up in the archive at Rheda, together with most of his documents.
  [16] Itinerarium, f.48r.
  [17] Ibid, f.23v.
  [18] Felix Platter (1536-1614) was head physician of the town and hospital of Basel, the founder of the anatomical institute and the botanical gardens well as vice-chancellor of the town's university. He was in favour with the German princes of Baden, Württemberg, Saxony, Brandenburg and the king of France, Henry IV. Adolf may have been interested in his work because of his own ill health.
  [19] Itinerarium, f.9v.
  [20] He was in Geneva from 30 July to 27 August 1597, in Padua from 19 November to 13 March in the same year, he went to Strasbourg on a second visit from 27 May to 9 July 1598 and to Bourges from 31 August to 13 July after having spent two months in Paris; he returned to Paris in April 1599 for another four months.
  [21] Thomas Platter accompanied Bentheim to the bear-fights in one of the bear-fights in one of the Southwark theatres in London on 19 September 1599. See Thomas Platter, Beschreibung der Reisen durch Spanien, England, und die Niederlande 1595-1600, Basel/Stuttgart 1968, p.793.
  [22] Pirkheimer studied law in Padua and Pavia 1488-1495.
  [23] Vita Arnoldi, p.43.
  [24] After the entries for Geneva and Padua he left several blank pages which he may have intended to fill in with more specific information about his stays at the towns.
  [25] Bentheim's interest in natural history focuses mainly of the abnormalities of nature. The most spectacular example he mentions is the petrified human head with a red coral and a sponge growing out of the scull in the medical cabinet at Pisa, Itinerarium, f.21r.
  [26] Bentheim is particularly interested in the mechanics of fountains, he mentions the conceiled water pipes that sqirt at innocent bystanders in the entry on Whitehall Palace, Itinerarium, f.42r. He also notes two mills at Frankfurt and Angers. About the horsemill at Angers he says that it was run by only two horses, providing eight hundred people with flower, Itinerarium, f.28r.
  [27] Bentheim frequently mentions historical detail and also copies passages of historical treateses in the English part of the diary. The lists of epitaphs which he records and sometimes copies is another indication of his historical interest.
  [28] See below.
  [29] See below.
  [30] T. Platter, op. cit.,introduction.
  [31] Auch ich in Arcadien, Kunstreisen in Italien 1600-1900,       Sonderaustellung Schiller National Museum, Stuttgart
1966.
  [32] Franzini, H., Palatia, Roma 1598.
  [33] Sebastianus Münster, Cosmographia [Universalis], facsimile, Lindau 1984.
  [34] Bentheim saw on 18 September 1598 the menagerie, the stable of the Palazzo Strozzi, the Campanile of the cathedral, the Piazza della Signora, the Laurentian library, the galleries and he adds in the entries of 28 October and 5 November: the guarderobbe at the Palazzo Veccio as well as the Palazzo Pitti.
  [35] Jean Tarde, A la Rencontre de Galilée Deux Voyages en Italie, ed. F. Moureau, Geneve 1984, pp. 36, 60, 64/65.
  [36] M. F. Dumesnil, Voyageurs Français en Italie, Paris 1865, p.21.
  [37] Jean Tarde, op. cit. p.68.
  [38] Ibid., p.41 The gallery is not the famous Galleria delle Carte Geogaphiche executed by Ignazio Danti for pope Gregory XIII which Montaigne mentions in his diary. The Galleria displays maps of only the pontifical states and of different Italian regions and not of the whole world. Jean Tarde saw both galeries but Bentheim seems to have missed the Galleria. This may be an indication of his lack of interest in anything but expensive curiosities as the gallery which he saw must have been located next to the guarderobbe.
  [39] The other churches and palaces both travellers visited are St. Sebastian's church which has a subterranean chapel where the relics of St Peter and St Paul were kept [Ibid., pp.68/69, 71, Tarde mentions that the relics of St. Paul and St. Peter were previously, before they were moved to the Vatican, in the church of St. Sebastian where Bentheim saw them. He also describes the caves below the church which are mentioned by Bentheim], the church of St John the Lateran [rebuilt by Borromini in 1650] the interior of which is described in great detail by both authors [Ibid., pp.68/69 Tarde admires, like Bentheim the decoration of the the Church of St John the Lateran, mentioning the columns the Emperor Vespasian is supposed to have brought from Jerusalem].
  [40] Ibid., pp.39/40, 78, Tarde mentions the arcade which he calls "l'intercolone de la basse-cour qui és galeries".
  [41] Ibid., p.73.
  [42] Ibid., p.77.
  [43] The classical monuments both authors saw are Trajan's column [Ibid., p.73], which Bentheim calls "St. Petri seul", the Roman bath on the forum romanum which he names "the house of Pilate" [Ibid., pp.77/78, The description of the bath as "the house of Pilate" seems to have been common in the sixteenth century. Tarde objects to the misappellation: "...un bain à la Lacénienne tout de brique qu'on apelle par erreur la maison de Pilate"], the pyramid of Caius Cestius [Ibid., p.71], the Temple of Janus [Ibid., p.77], the baths of Caracalla [Ibid., p.75, Tarde described the Baths of Caracalla in some detail: "Ce sont les plus grandes et les pous entiers qui restent à Rome; on y voit encore des salles, caves, chambres, arcs, voutres, cellules, aqueducs, cheminée, incrustrations et embellissement: ce que personne ne peut voir sans admirer la dépense qui y a été faite"] and the Pantheon [Ibid., pp.72/73, Tarde says about the Pantheon that it is "la plus belle antiquité du monde et la plus entière, admirable en sa grandeur,forme, colonnes" etc].
  [44] Bentheim says about St. Agnese that it was "made like a round chapel, like the Pantheon, with a circular window at the top". Itinerarium, f.17v.
  [45] Various names which appear in the diary such as "Cestÿ begrebnuß" for the pyramid of Caius Cestius or "Debholz" for Theobalds are probably derived from the Cosmographia a source which was also used by the contemporary traveler Thomas Platter.
  [46] "darin Le sala reale welcher gantz rundt wie einn kirch, gewaltigh hoch, hatt oben ein loch da dass licht herein gehet, und nach dem meer 2. grosse fenster naus." See Itinerarium, f.19v/20r.
  [47] "...da ein grosser runder stein vor der thuer leit, mit eins mensches Angesicht und ein grossen maul, heist Bocca di verita, do die Alte Romer Ihre weiber mit probiret", Itinerarium, f.16v.
  [48] The sepulchre was in fact a ruined theatre north of Bacoli, it is possible that the original tomb was destroyed during the construction of the castle at Baia in the mid sixteenth century. see Discours Viatiques de Paris a Rome et de Rome a Neaples et Sicile [1588-1589], ed. L. Monga, Geneva 1983, p.100, footnote 54 and Itinerarium, f.19r.
  [49] The "Colisei" is the Anfiteatro Flavio of the Roman town of Puteoli which was built under the emperor Vespasius, it was the third biggest in the Empire, after Rome and Santa Maria Capua.see Discours Viatiques, p.93, footnote 32 and Itinerarium, f.18v.
  [50] Many Renaissance guides mention Pouzzoli and describe the area. A bibliography of this subject was compiled by R.T. Günther, A Bibliography of Topograhical and Geographical Works on the Phelegaean Fields, Royal Geographical Society, London 1908.
  [51] Discours Viatiques, pp.91, 100/101.
  [52] The grotta Sybilla, grotta del cane and the grotta dragona.
  [53] Bentheim misspells Lake Lucrino, which was one of the lakes that he saw as "laco pucrino". The other lakes are the Lago Averno and the Lago Agnatum.
  [54] The monte Olympo and the monte nouvo.
  [55] Itinerarium, f.19r.
  [56] Many travellers repeated this experiment with a dog, or in the case of Jerome Turler, with "a great many frogs" which were thrown into the grotta and "which because they leaped not forth presently again, were cilled instantly" J.Turler, The Traveler, London 1575; reprint Florida 1951, p.148 and Itinerarium, f.18v.
  [57] The guarderobbe in the Palazzo Veccio was a great show-piece. It had been redecorated with fifty three marquetry maps by Egnazio Danti and Stefano Buonsigniori in the second half of the sixteenth century. Contemporary travelers mention it frequently in their diaries. See Discours Viatiques, p.216, footnote 200.
  [58] He does not mention the galleries with statues and the unfinished staircase which Jean Tarde saw in the palace, op.cit., p.36.
  [59] According to Tarde the pontificals were in the guarderobbe and not in the sacristy. Jean Tarde, op. cit., p.40.
  [60] Baron Waldstein gives the same information about the price of the diamond, T. Platter says is was "worth many thousants of crowns." See The Diary of Baron Waldstein, translated by G.W. Gross, London 1981, p.150/151, footnote 245.
  [61] Itinerarium, f.32r, 44r.
  [62] R. Woodfield, On the Emergence of Aesthetics, The British Journal of Aesthetics XVII, Oxford 1978.
  [63] The Heller alterpiece was in the Dominican church at Frankfurt. The central panel of the Assumption and the Coronation of the Virgin, which was painted by Dürer himself who praised his use of precious pigment in a letter to his patron Jacob Heller and finished in 1509. It was sold by the Dominicans to Maximilian I, Eletor of Bavaria and was destroyed by a fire in Munich in 1729. The painting, which is preserved in a copy by Jobst Harrich, shows the empty tomb of Virgin surrounded by the Apostles in the lower half of the composition and, in the upper half, her coronation by the Holy Trinity, hence Adolph's description of the painting as the "S. Trinitatis". See E. Panofsky, The Life and Art of Albrect Dürer, Princeton 1971, pp .123-125.
  [64] Ovid, Metamorphoses, I, 128-159.
  [65] Itinerarium, f.22v.
  [66] Ibid, f.40r-42v.
  [67] ..."daß man mir unndt meiner gesellschaft nicht allein die gärten, großen säl, kapellen unndt kammeren zeigen solle, sondern auch die kleinen königlichen cabinet unndt waß köstlich darinnen aufgehaben...", T. Platter, op.cit., p.831.
  [68] Queen Elizabeth was holding court at Nonesuch when Bentheim visited the palace. He describes kissing her hand and having dinner in Milford Chamberlain's room. See Itinerarium, f.32v.
  [69] Baron Waldstein's guide was called Master Linyard who can be identified with "Master Leinvert, a German tailor who acts as a guide to persons of our nation, and knows a good deal about the country" in the 1602 diary of the Duke of Stettin-Pommerania. See The Diary of Baron Waldstein, p.126, footnote 202.
  [70] Bentheim seems to have lost interest in giving a complete account of the objects he saw during the visits to Windsor Castle, where he records a few sepulchres, the beds of various kings and the chapel where the members of the Order of the Garter were knighted, [Ibid, f.31v and 36r-38r] in Hampton Court only a few pictures and the "Paradise Chamber" as well as the ceiling of the Long Hall that was made of Irish wood the cobweb-resistant quality of which is mentioned by both Zitzerling and Waldstein [Ibid f.32r and 43r-45r]. The account of Greenwich [Ibid, f.39r] is likewise very short and at Woodstock he merely mentions the story of the mistress of Henry II, Rosamund Clifford [Ibid, f.35v]. The only other long description of an interiour is the one of Theobalds, the home of Robert Cecil, where he delights again in precious stone and mechanical toys such as the birds which were suspended from the ceiling in one of the rooms [Ibid, f.33v/r].
  [71] Baron Waldstein came to England in 1600, a year after Bentheim. see The Diary of Baron Waldstein, introduction.
  [72] These are the portraits of the refomation leaders of f.41v.
  [73] The most prominent paintings, the two portraits of the young Eduard VI, an anamorphosis attributed to Willim Scots, 1546, National Portrait Gallery, London was popular with contemporary travelers because of the skillful use of perspective and the Hans Holbein portrait of the National Gallery of Art, Washington, Andrew Mellon Collection, 1539, are mentioned by both authors who also name various unidentified portraits of Queen Elizabeth I wearing her parliamentary dress, the English kings Henry VII and VIII, Richard II, the French king Louis XII, the German Emperor Maximilian I, Duke Charles of Burgundy, Antony Famosteny whose colossal skeleton was preserved in Helmsted [The name of Antony Famosteny is largely illegible in the Waldstein diary and was transcribed as Antony of "Francktrue" by G.W. Groos; see The Diary of Baron Waldstein, p .56, footnote 82] and of "a woman of Greek origin who was brought to England by a London merchant" [Itinerarium, f.42r] as well as imaginary portraits of historical figures such as Attila the Hun and Julius Caesar, the battle scenes of the Saracens at Pietmont and the Siege of Malta, allegorical pictures of Queen Elizabeth in the company of Juno, Pallas Athene and Venus [Juno, Pallas Athene and Venus, by the Monogammist H E, 1569, Royal Collection] and of a cripple carrying a blind man, two series, one of the Passion, the other of Reformation leaders and a fruit still life.
  [74] The book is mentioned by numerous travelers, for example the Dukes of Saxe-Weimar and Eisenberg who identify it as the Dialogus Fidei of Erasmus. See Ibid, p.50, footnote 54 and Itinerarium, f.42v.
  [75] Itinerarium, f.40v.
  [76] Ibid, f.41v.
  [77] Juno, Pallas Athene and Venus, f.41v and the Holbein portrait of Eduard VI, f.41r, see footnote 73.
  [78] See footnote 38.
  [79] Bentheim and Waldstein had a common aquintance, Raphael Lescinski, a Moravian nobleman who was friendly with Waldstein and who met Bentheim in Basel on 23 June 1597. See Ibid., p.32, footnote 26 and Itinerarium, f.9v.
  [80] See footnote 21.
  [81] The Britanica by William Camden was first published in 1587, it was a popular work used by the English diaryists Hetzner, Platter and Waldstein, see The Diary of Baron Waldstein, p.32, footnote 27.
  [82] Bentheim misspells the name of William Camden variously as "Cambdenus", "Gambdemo" and "Gambdeno". See Itinerarium, f.35r, f.35v and f.36r.
  [83] Bentheim describes some of the history of Windsor Castle [Itinerarium, f.36r] and the story of Rosamund Clifford, the mistress of Henry II, who lived in a room at Woodstock Palace where she received visits from the king [Ibid, f.35v].
  [84] John Caius, De Antiquitate Cantabrigiensis Academiae, 1574.
  [85] The main difference between the two accounts as they are quoted by Bentheim are the widely disparate dates ascribed to the same events as well as the attention to detail. The description which is take from Caius mentions the architecture of the fortification Cantaber, the son of the Spanish king, supposedly built as well as  the Athenian philosopher who was thought to have taught at Cambridge during the reign of King Gurguntius [Bentheim mispells the name, he calls the king "Gunguntÿ"] whereas the quotation from Camden gives only the rough outlines of the foundation by Cantaber, the refoundation by Sigebert of East Anglia and destruction by the Danes. See Itinerarium, f.34v/35r.
  [86] Like the Oxford claim that the university was founded by the prophet Samuel this story is not based on historical evidence and has to be understood in the context of the rivalry and the mutual strife towards seniority between the universities. The earliest reference to the story of Cantaber is Fisher's oration to Henry VII in 1506 and it appeared as late as 1787 in a university calender. See The Diary of Baron Waldstein, p.88, footnote 145.
  [87] Ibid, f.12v.
  [88] Werdehausen, E. A., Bramante und das Kloster S. Ambrosio in Mailand, Worms 1990, p.65.
  [89] Itinerarium, f.2v.
  [90] Prinz, W. and Klecks, R.G., Das Französische Schloß der Renaissance, Berlin 1985, pp.129-137.
  [91] W. Lübke, Renaissance in Deutschland, Esslingen 1914, p .173; also Grundriß der deutschen Verwaltungsgeschichte 1815-1945, Vol.II, ed. T.Klein, Marburg 1979, pp.106/107.
  [92] Purbs-Hensel, Renaissance Schlösser in Nassau-Saarbrücken, Saarbrücken 1973.
  [93] Itinerarium, f.3r.
  [94] Prinz, W. and Klecks, R.G., op.cit., pp.137-146
  [95] The statue of Diana above the gate at Anet which is depicted in one of Ducerceau's prints is copied in the relief sculpture of a fountain at Neunkirchen.
  [96] Großmann, U., Höfische Architectur, in Renaissance im Weserraum, Schriften des Weserrenaissance-Museums Schloß Brake, ed. Großmann, Munich 1989, pp.428, 436-438.
  [97] The drawings are in Kassel, Gesamthochschul-Biblothek, Handschriften- Abteilung 2 Mss. Hass. 107.
  [98] The inscription still exists on the former gateway-tower. It is dated 1604 and may have been installed by Bentheim himself who had returned from his journey four years previously. See H. Conrad, op. cit., p.257.
  [99] The painting which shows a Templar knight in full armour is dated to the first half of the sixteenth century by Leo Zellner. It may have been, however, executed by a local Westfalian painter in an anachronistic style at a later date. See Ibid, p.257.
  [100] G. A. Rump, op. cit, p.79.
  [101] Partner, P., The Murdered Magicians, Oxford 1982, p.69.
  [102] The description of the torture which the Duke of Anjou inflicted on his wife and the desciption of the relicts in the Vatican are prime examples for his fascination with cruelty. [Itinerarium, f.28r and f.16r]. We must assume that he, like his father did not approve of such violence. His father was one of the first German princes to make witch-hunts illegal. See Vita Arnoldi, introduction.
  [103] Großmann, U., Höfische Architectur, in Renaissance im Weserraum, Schriften des Weserrenaissance-Museums Schloß Brake, ed. Großmann, Munich 1989, p.396.
  [104] Klapheck, R., Die Meister von Schloß Horst, Berlin 1915.
  [105] I am much obliged to Sophie von Galen for this information. See also Ibid., pp.250/251.
  [106] See H. Kreft and J. Soenke, Der Kerbschnitt-Bossenstein, das Ornament der späten Weserrenaissance in Die Weserrenaissance, Hameln, 1964, pp.291-294.
  [107] For the ballustrades of the Weserrenaissance see: Großmann, U., Renaissance entlang der Weser, Cologne 1990, pp.45/46. About oriels: Ibid, pp.63-67.
  [108] H.Conrad, op.cit., pp. 261/262.